Blood Type and Ab

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I. Historical Perspective
A. ABO Blood Group System is the first human blood group system discovered. It remains the most important blood group in transfusion practice. B. In 1901, Landsteiner described the first 3 blood groups in the ABO system: Group A, Group B and Group O. C. In 1902, Landsteiner associates Sturle and Von Descatello discovered the fourth blood group in the ABO system: the group AB. Lansteiner Law

In 1900, Lansteiner discovered the A and B antigen on RBC. His conclusions are summarized as follows: a. The antigen on the RBC determines the blood groups. b. The corresponding antibody is never found in the individual’s serum. For example: RBC with A antigen cannot have anti-A in the serum. c. The opposite antibody is always present in the individual’s serum. The antibodies of the ABO system are usually IgM. BloodGroups| Antigens on RBC Surface| Naturally occurring antibody in the serum| Percentage in American Population| A| A| Anti-B| 40%|

B| B| Anti-A| 10%|
AB| A and B| None| 5%|
O| O| Anti-AAnti-B| 45%|

Inheritance of ABO Blood Group
The ABO blood group system is determined by the ABO gene, which is found on chromosome 9. The four ABO blood groups, A, B, AB and O, arise from inheriting one or more of the alternative forms of this gene (or alleles) namely A, B or O. Genetic Combinations of ABO Blood Groups|

Blood group| Possible genes|
A| AA or AO|
B| BB or BO|
O| OO|
The A and B alleles are codominant so both A and B antigens will be expressed on the red cells whenever either allele is present. O alleles do not produce either A or B antigens, thus, are sometimes called ‘silent' alleles.

ABO Inheritance Patterns|
Parental blood groups| Child's blood group|
O and O| O|
O and A| O or A|
O and B| O or B|
O and AB| A or B|
A and A| A or O|
A and B| O or A or B or AB|
A and AB| A or B or AB|
B and B| O or B|
B and AB|...
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