A nice young female is quietly walking back to her apartment late in the night, when she feels someone watching her. She quickly whips around to find that she is staring in the pure darkness. Nothing is there, she thinks to herself, but she can still feel the pure eeriness of someone watching her. She quickens her pace to make it to her apartment safely, but when she is about to be safely behind a locked door, something comes crashing down on her head. Blood goes splattering everywhere.
The criminal investigators come in the next morning to investigate what happened to this innocent lady. They put all their knowledge together and decide to try to solve this case by using what? Bloodstain Pattern Analysis!
Blood, the red liquid that is pumped through the arteries and is made up of many different cells, is forced out of the body in accidents and crimes. Each specie has different consistency of blood. Scientist's results are based on Homo sapiens blood. If they were to use animal blood the results would never come to be the same.
When thinking of bloodstain pattern analysis, one probably thinks, "Hmmm must be some complicated forensic science technology!" Actually, it is not; forensic scientists have used it since the 1890's. Bloodstain pattern analysis has been around for as long as fingerprinting has been used as a means to identify criminals. Hans Gross, in his 1892 papers, "Criminal Investigations," described bloodstains found at crime scenes and that the direction of the bloodstains could be determined by the shape of the bloodstain.
Balthazard, a French criminal analyst, found that the angle a bloodstain stuck the surface could be determined by dividing the width of a bloodstain by the length. This helped in determining the location from which the bloodstain came from. Eventually, they put this worked under the category of forensic science.
In defining bloodstain pattern analysis, some might say, "Show what happened at the crime scene through bloodstains, and there it is bloodstain pattern analysis." Technically that is incorrect, but basically that is what it is. According to the book Blood Stain Analysis by Terry L. Laber and Barton P. Epstein, it is the reconstructing of events causing the bloodstain patterns to be found.
In a crime involving bloodshed, a multitude of information can be gathered from using bloodstain pattern analysis. All of the following things can be learned using this forensic science: the location and orientation of the people and objects at the time the incident occurred, the movements of the person or object during the bloodshed, the place where the blood originated, the number of impacts and the event in which it took place, whether or not the suspect was bleeding, the position of the victim, and if a struggle took place in the event. When crimes happen with no witnesses, the forensic evidence at the scene becomes the most important to true witness of all. Forensics scientists use this technology to prove what happened at the scene. An important rule is the smaller the droplets of blood, the greater the force that made it. Also, air resistance affects smaller droplets of blood
According to scientists, there are five main bloodstain patterns to look for
The impact pattern is the result of blood from a blow and hard impact.
Then there is a cast off pattern, which is a result of blood being flung from an object in motion
The gunshot pattern is a result from a gunshot
There is the projected patter, which is a result from loss of large amounts of blood, such as bleeding from a main artery
And last of all, the transfer patter, which is a pattern, which is a pattern when a non-bloody object comes in contact with a bloody object. Blood is a very uniform material from the aerodynamic standpoint. Blood's ability to reproduce specific patterns is not affected significantly by sex, age, or diseases that the person bleeding might have. Since blood is...
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