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Study on the Competitiveness of the European Steel Sector
Within the Framework Contract of Sectoral Competitiveness Studies – ENTR/06/054 Final report, August 2008

Client: Directorate-General Enterprise & Industry

ECORYS SCS Group P.O. Box 4175 3006 AD Rotterdam Watermanweg 44 3067 GG Rotterdam The Netherlands

T +31 (0)10 453 88 16 F +31 (0)10 453 07 68 E fwc-scs@ecorys.com W www.ecorys.com Registration no. 24316726

Table of contents

Executive summary................................................................................................................... ii 1 Introduction.......................................................................................................................1 1.1 1.2 2 Structure of the report.................................................................................................2 Scope of the study: Defining the steel industry .............................................................2

The steel industry: key aspects..........................................................................................5 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 2.10 2.11 2.12 2.13 2.14 Characteristics of companies in the steel sector...........................................................6 Technologies and production processes.......................................................................9 Supply to the steel industry ........................................................................................19 The steel industry’s distribution and downstream value chain ....................................20 Internationalisation and consolidation in the world steel industry..............................21 Major changes and consolidation in the European steel industry ...............................23 Production of crude steel and finished steel products.................................................26 Production of steel tubes ...........................................................................................33 Foundry production ..................................................................................................36 Steel capacity and utilization.....................................................................................38 Steel consumption .....................................................................................................41 Development in steel prices .......................................................................................44 Employment levels.....................................................................................................47 Conclusions ..............................................................................................................49

3

The competitive position of the EU steel industry ..........................................................52 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 Analytical framework for analyzing competitiveness ..................................................52 Business conditions...................................................................................................53 Overall competitive company strategies.....................................................................58 Input to steel production............................................................................................61 Processes and output factors .....................................................................................73 Performance of the EU steel industry.........................................................................78 Demand forecasts and market prospects....................................................................89 Conclusions ..............................................................................................................94

4

Regulatory and Framework Conditions for Competitiveness ........................................98

4.1 4.2 4.3 5

Main regulatory conditions affecting competitiveness of the...
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