Black September

Topics: Munich massacre, Israel, Palestine Liberation Organization Pages: 5 (1882 words) Published: February 22, 2011
Black September
Black September is both the name of Jordan’s war on the Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO) in the early seventies and the name of Palestinian terrorist movement created in revenge of the aftermath of Palestinian losses of the war in Jordan. Black September was a movement created by a break away Palestinian faction of Fatah. Fatah Is a Palestinian political party and the largest faction of the PLO. In Palestinian politics it is a more liberal group on the left wing of the spectrum, it is mainly a nationalistic group with some traits of socialism. Fatah’s goal was to have liberation of Palestine and eradication of the Zionist existence. Fatah is not considered a terrorist group by any government.

In the late 1960’s tensions between Palestinians and the Jordan government increased dramatically. With the amount of Arab resistance in Jordan the country basically became a state within a state, they eventually took hold of many strategic positions throughout the country. After their victory in the battle of Karameh, Fatah and other Palestinian militias began taking control of citizens in some areas. They set up roadblocks, molested women and created illegal taxes to the Jordan people, which was ignored by Chairman of the PLO.

In 1970, the Jordan Government fought to regain control over its lost territory, and King Hussein declared martial law on September 25th. The Jordan government had taken back much of what was lost, and was dominating in battle, so on the 27th of September Arafat and Hussein agreed to a ceasefire. The Jordan army inflicted mass numbers of casualties against the Palestinians- including 3500 civilians. Two thousand of the Fatah members made their way to the groups headquarters in Syria. In the 60’s and 70’s Fatah provided training to a wide range of European, middle eastern, and Asian insurgent groups that were aimed to take out many Israeli targets. Some militant groups were affiliated with Fatah and cells created new groups such as Fedayeen and made their own agenda of plane hijacking and terrorist attacks. One of those new groups being Black September.

Black September a Palestinian militant group was founded in 1970, they called themselves Black September because of the conflict between Jordan and Palestine that killed more Palestinian civilians than soldiers in September of 1970. The group wanted to take revenge against King Hussein and the Iraeli’s who supported the massacre in Jordan.

Black September has been responsible for a variety of terrorist activity in the early seventies. On November 28th, 1971 the group assassinated the prime minister of Jordan Wasfi Tel in retaliation to the expulsion of the PLO in his country. The Prime minister was in Cairo, Egypt at the time. Wasfi was leaving his hotel when four men approached him and they all unloaded on him. He was shot close to 30 times. All four of them shouted that they were members of Black September and fled the scene, two of them were caught and arrested in Egpyt. In December of 1971 they attempted to assassinate Zeid al Rifai, Jordan’s ambassador to London and former chief of the Jordanian royal court. In February of 1972 they sabatoged a gas and electric plant in west Germany. In May of 72 they hijacked a Belgian aircraft flying from Vienna to London. In September of 72 the group sent dozens of letter bombs from Amsterdam to Israeli diplomatic posts around the world. Many of those bombs were identified at posts offices, 4 made it to the embassy and one made to the Agricultural Counselor Ami Shachori in Britain. It blew up his desk sending fragments of wood and metal into his chest and stomach killing him instantly. In August of 1973 two members of the group were at passenger lounge in an Athens airport, they opened fire killing 5 people and wounding 55. The group is best known for their hostage taking in the 1972 Olympic games in Munich. The hostage taking did not happen...
Continue Reading

Please join StudyMode to read the full document

You May Also Find These Documents Helpful

  • The Black Cat
  • The Black and White World of 1984 Seen Through Dark Eyes Essay
  • Analysis of Dry September Essay
  • september 11th Essay
  • September 11, 2001 Essay
  • September 11 Attacks and A. Washington Irving Essay
  • The Attack on September 11, 2001 Essay
  • Essay about Change on America After September 11

Become a StudyMode Member

Sign Up - It's Free