During the first Seminole War (1817-1818) Andrew Jackson invaded Florida, destroyed Black and Indian towns. During this time Blacks fled to the Bahamas.
In 1823 some Seminole Indian leaders moved to a reservation in Florida and were ordered to return slaves that did not belong to them. The Indian Removal Act of 1830 decreased Indians would be removed from the west. The Blacks feared if they stayed with the Indians they would be returned to slavery.
They took the lead and joined the Seminoles in a guerilla war know as the Second Seminole War (1835-1842). It turned out to be the longest and most expensive war in the United States to date. Once again the Black proved to be courageous fighters. To end this long, bloody, and costly war General Jesup granted freedom to the Blacks if they would go west as part of the Seminole Nation. The war turned out to be a “War of Independence” for the Blacks Seminoles.
Indians faced another enemy the Creeks. The Creeks were intent on enslaving the Black Seminoles. Wild Cat, leader of the Seminole Indians and John Horse, Leader of the Black Seminoles, resisted this domination. Wild Cat didn’t want his power diminished by the Creek chiefs and planned to form a confederation with other southwestern Indians of which he would be the leader. John Horse and his band of Black Seminoles were most concerned about acquiring land where they would be safe from the Creek slave hunters. Black Seminoles and Kickapp Indians set out for Mexico.
Upon entering Mexico in July 1950, John Horse exclaimed: “When we came fleeing slavery, Mexico was a land of freedom and the Mexicans spread out there arms to us”.
At the end of the Civil War more white settlers moved to the Southwest and used the Overland trail to cross Texas into New Mexico, Arizona, and California. This brought conflict with other Indian tribes such as Comanche’s and the Apaches.
Army personnel at the frontier bases in Texas were not equipped to stop the raids, track...
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