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The IPOS Cycle:
IOPS cycle is an organized procedure through which all processing within a computer takes place. And it takes place through four operations. 1. Input
2. Processing
3. Output
4. Storage

1. Input Operation: In the input operation, data is entered or otherwise captured electronically and is converted to a form (machine language) that can be processed by the computer. 2. Processing Operation: In the processing operation, the data is manipulated to process or transform it into information, which is usable for people. And it takes place through four steps, which is called the machine cycle. 3. Output Operation: In this operation, the information, which has bben processed from data, is produced in a form usable by people. Examples of output are printered text, sound, and charts and graphs displayed on a computer screen. 4. Storage Operation: In the Storage Operation, data, information, and programs are stored in computer process able form. Diskettes are examples of materials used for storage. All the operation of IPOS cycle in done on the machine cycle. Machine cycle consist of four parts. 1. Fetching

2. Decoding
3. Executing
4. Store
Working Storage Area
Program Storage Area
Output
Storage
Area
Input
Storage
Area

Execute
Decode

ALU
CU

RAM

1. Fetching: In this process the data is fetched from the program storage Area send to Control Unit. 2. Decode: In this process the fetched data in CU is decoded to machine language, all the information are Scand the operands and operations are set and sent to ALU. 3. Execute: During the execution cycle, or E cycle, arithmetic/logic unit executes the instruction (performs the operation on the data and stores the processed results in the main memory or register. If it is final result, it is stored in output storage area but if more jobs were to be done on it, it is sent to Working Storage Area, which, acts as a sheet of paper and a intermediate storage place. 4. Store: The information is stored in a secondary storage for further use in future. Online storage such as in program storage area or in Offline storage such as floppy,CD,flash memory

I-Time /Cycle: Instruction Phase. Fetching and Decoding.
In the I-cycle, the control unit (1) fetches an instruction from programming storage area and (2) decodes that instruction (change to machine language in form of 0s and 1s) E-Time /Cycle: Executive Phase.

During the E-cycle the arithmetic logical unit (3) executes the instruction (performs the operation on the data) and (4) stores the processed results in main memory or a register.

Chapter # 1
What is data?
Data is raw facts and figures which are unorganized, unprocessed. What is information?
Information is processed, organized, refined form of data.

Process
Input (data) output (information)

The difference is that information is useful for the organization.

Types of Data:

Textual Data

Physical Data

Audio/ Visual Data

Numeric Data

Textual Data:
Or text can contain any combination of letters, and special characters. Sometimes textual data is known as alphanumeric data.
Two types of textual data
Character: Consists of a single character
* Strings: Consists of more than one character.

Physical Data:
It is captured from the environment. For example, light, sound, voice, temperature, and pressure are types of physical data. Such as the warmth of the air is used as physical data input into a thermostat to regulate room temperature.

Audiovisual:
Various forms of data that we can hear or see make up audiovisual data. The computer can produce spoken output as well as accepts the human voice for input. Data can also take the form of graphs and drawing s generated by both users and software. Such as MP3,...
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