Bismarck Was a Past Master in the Diplomatic Arts

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"Bismarck was a past master in the diplomatic arts."

W. Carr

Otto von Bismarck was a significant figure who put his stamp on his age, as only few have done before him. He remains one of the most important, influential and powerful political character of modern Germany. After victorious wars with Denmark, France and Austria on January 18th, 1871 a new German Empire, which included the southern Germany states, was built. The King of Prussia became German Emperor. Bismarck was awarded the title of Prince and was appointed as Reichskanzler and his main aim was to unify German states under Prussian role. When added to his Prussian positions (premier, foreign minister, and minister of commerce) the imperial chancellorship gave him almost complete control of foreign and domestic policy. The system was described at the time as a ‘chancellor dictatorship'. Bismarcks iron man image and unique personality was a major factor in German development. He did all that he could to achieve his aims. There were no borders in ways in which he tried to succeed. Did he succeed? Bismarck's goals were very strict and obvious. Firstly he wanted to strengthen the role of Prussia within German States. It was the basis to make his position stronger. It was simple to achieve it because of no necessary changes. Bismarck uphold the veto which was posiible for Prussia in Bundesrat. He wanted to unify the country by lots of policy and law settlements, reorganization in law system and reforms. He tried to isolate ideology from politics. As a Imperial Chancellor had possibility to decide upon policy. Thanks to alliances made in deliberate and considered way he maintain status – quo in whole Europe with Germany as an Imperium. His smart and clever decisions upon people and organisations which are suitable to cope with made him comprehensive ruler of the Reich and pulled him through to aims achievement. His general ideological orientation and political commitments, his position on constitutional issues and representative government, his views on place of Prussia and Germany in Europe were the most distinctive parts of his policy. Almost everything what he did inside the Reich was connected with strengtening the central power. He also didn't want to make political and religious issues mixed. First way of gaining what he wanted were suitable changes in the Reich policy. Firstly, despite of his conservative roots Bismasck was connected with the National Liberals. Together they move Germany toward free trade. He gone to war against conservative regimes and worked the Reich up to rapid industrialization. He also developed a central bank, a common currency and commercial and civil law for whole Germany. As a part of his goal achieving plan, of unification he ‘opened the borders' inside the Reich. He also started to fight with the problem of minorities. The state created by Bismarck was a curiously disunited entity. He tried to do everything to unite all people by laws, plebiscites. Later, in coalition with liberals who were violently anticrelical, he introduced the Kulturkampf. Why? As he said – ‘It is not a matter of the conflict between belief and unbelief. It is a matter of the conflict between monarchy and prosthood.' Koulturkamp origins also lay in the Papal Infallibility. Otto von Bismarck decided to subdue any party that offered to challenge his policies. All Roman Catholics, who tended to oppose a centralized state were subjected to ‘struggle of civilisations'. He did not accept minorities, which were called by him as ‘enemies of people'. Most notorious of Kulturkampf were the ‘May Laws' introduec in 1872 by adalbert Falk – a set of laws aimed directly at decreasing the influence which the German Catholic Church wanted to have. They brought the education under state control and put restrictions upon Clergy. Bismarck's way of dealing with Catholics was very...
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