Birth Order’s Effect on Personality
Environment determines to some extent the personality of a person. There are numerous factors in the environment which could determine variations in the personalities of different individuals. There are factors which are inherent to the environment and there are those determined by the manner by which individuals enter into a particular environment. In much the same way, how an infant’s entrance into the world determines in large part how parents and others will respond. In this paper particular view will be taken on the matter of timing that an infant is born. When an infant is born determines in large part the emotions of his or her parents and relatives. Moreover, whether or not the infant is the first child, has older siblings, or is the youngest child to be born to the family impacts the environment he or she is to grow up in. These three different scenarios are descriptive of birth order. A person’s rank by age among his or her siblings is called birth order (Sulloway, 2001). Birth order thus determines the environment into which a child is born and the responsive and adaptive responses of the child. This cycle of interaction extends all the way up to adulthood (Stewart, Stewart, & Campbell, 2001). Thus, one can reasonably infer that birth order determines the relatively constant pattern of personality observed in individuals. Birth order therefore significantly affects the personality of the individual. This paper will take a closer look at this phenomenon through an introduction to the field of study regarding the link between birth order and personality. To set the stage, theories of birth order will first be briefly reviewed. The progress of studies from this initial theoretical stage has caused the study of two types of birth order: biological and psychological. These two will be differentiated herein. Finally, the distinguishing characteristics of individuals with varying birth orders will be discussed. The personality traits associated with first-borns, later born children, and only children will be outlined herein. By the end of this paper, it will have been made clear that indeed birth order has a role in molding the personality of individuals. Theories on Birth Order
Several theories on birth order have been established dating back to the time of Freud and Jung. Freud himself a first-born child was known to exhibit characteristics typically associated with first-borns. Two significant theorists who have helped to build up the credibility of the study of birth order will be introduced here. The first provided the basis for the discussion regarding birth order and the second revived the said discussion after critics had caused the temporary disbelief to prior studies.
Among the first psychologists to consider the effect of birth order on personality was Alfred Adler. Adler espoused that birth order was determinative of the amount of attention that children garnered from their parents (Adler, 1964). The first perspective on birth order thus stemmed from a belief that individuals competed for attention and for areas of strength as a response to parental expectations. In Adler’s theory, the first-born gains the exclusive attention of his or her parents – for a season at least. This prompts the first-born to explore confidently his or her areas of interest knowing that any accomplishments he or she attains will give satisfaction to his or her parents (Adler, 1964). However, upon the birth of the second child, the parents’ attention shifts to the younger child. This causes the first-born to moderate actions and levels of confidence (Adler, 1964). Moreover, on the part of the second child, there is a need to gain competence in areas so that he or she might receive attention in the same manner that the older sibling does (Eckstein, 2000). This competition for competence determines the enduring personality traits of the...