Birmingham Campaign

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Birmingham Campaign – Essay notes

Cause
Underlying cause of history of slavery, emancipation, segregation/ Jim Crow laws. •Long term cause of growing Black Civil Rights movement building momentum and raising awareness of issue. Previous Black Civil rights campaigns that inspired and sparked e.g. Events such as Montgomery Bus Boycott which gave MLKing his first big leadership role. Also Freedom Riders, Brown VS board of Ed. •Birmingham was one of the worst segregated big cities in the USA •History of harsh and violent segregation and mistreatment of black citizens, KKK support and membership, epicentre of racism in the South •Government officials pro-segregation

SCLC- King’s group
NAACP was banned
Eg. Bull Connor and …..
The failure of Albany- lack of publicity.

Event
Police violence
Dog attacks
High pressure hoses
Arrests.
By-standers violence
Children’s Crusade (primary and secondary)
Martin Luther King being arrested
Letter from Birmingham Jail
“Project C” = direct action and provocation
Non-violent provocations
osit ins at White Churches, marches, boycotts, lunch counters etc. •Use of children to fuel protest
Consequence
Publicity
National/International sympathy
White backlash –
oSixteenth St Baptist Church bombing killing 4 girls
oHotel bombed where Martin Luther King Jr and SCLC had stayed oMartin Luther King Jr’s brother Alfred’s house bombed
Riots
March on Washington
Civil Rights Act of 1964
Governor Wallace sent State Troops to stop desegregation of schools and in response Present Kennedy sent Federal Troops. •Martin Luther King’s reputation (“I have a dream” speech). Nobel Peace prize 1964. •Positives:

o“Jim Crow” laws taken down desegregating public facilities eg Lunch counters, drinking fountains etc oAllowed Black employment
oMore rights for Black citizens
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