Birds and Animals

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Biodiversity
Aquatic vegetation
SAC (1998) data, using LISS I of 76 mm resolution show that the ponds/lakes in Jammu and Ladakh had low vegetation. Those in Baramula had low vegetation in about 50% of the area while comparatively dense vegetation in the rest (Fig. 15.9). Waterlogged area had dense vegetation in Jammu and Ladakh (Table. 15.14). Seventy five major species of aquatic plants of different types such as emergent, floating and submerged were recorded. The dominant emergents were of the genera Saccharum, Sagittaria, Typha, Phragmites, Eleocharis and Scirpus. The common submerged plants found in most water bodies are of the genera Hydrilla, Vallisneria, Utricularia, Potamogeton, Myriophyllum, Najas and Ceratophyllum and floating plants Nelumbo, Nymphaea, Nymphoides, Trapa, Euryale and Lemna. Weeds such as Salvinia sp. also covered some of the wetlands affecting the habitat quality. There are two endemic species of aquatic plants, namely Najas marina ssp. and Hoppea dichotoma reported from Jammu & Kashmir (Cook, 1996). -------------------------------------------------

Fishes
Twenty species of Threatened fishes were recorded from the state (Menon, 1999). These include four of the 40 Endangered and, 16 of the 49 Vulnerable species occurring in India (Table. 15.15). No Critically Endangered fishes were reported in Jammu & Kashmir. -------------------------------------------------

Turtles
Five species of turtles were reported, out of which two each are Vulnerable and Near Threatened, while one is of Least Concern (Table. 15.16). -------------------------------------------------
Birds
In the 29 wetlands surveyed in Jammu & Kashmir, 106 species of birds were observed, of which 25 species were land birds, occasionally visiting the wetlands, especially the drier parts. The highest number of species (43) was in Tsokar tso in the Ladakh region (Table. 15.17). Two Threatened species, namely the...
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