Bipolar Disorder In the world today
This article reviews the current state of the literature on the assessment of bipolar disorder in adults. Research on reliable and valid measures for bipolar disorder has unfortunately lagged behind assessment research for other disorders, such as major depression. We review diagnostic tools, self-report measures to facilitate screening for bipolar diagnoses, and symptom severity measures. We briefly review other assessment domains, including measures designed to facilitate self-monitoring of symptoms. We highlight particular gaps in the field, including an absence of research on the reliable diagnosis of bipolar II and milder forms of disorder, a lack of empirical data on the best ways to integrate data from multiple domains, and a shortage of measures targeting a broader set of illness-related constructs relevant to bipolar disorder.
Bipolar disorder 3
Bipolar disorder, also known as manic-depressive disorder, is a condition that affects one’s mood, emotions, and behavior. A person with bipolar disorder experiences mood episodes. These mood episodes can include depressive episodes, manic episodes, and mixed episodes. During depressive episodes, individuals usually experience sad mood, diminished interest in usual activities, and disturbances in sleep, appetite, energy, and concentration. Manic episodes typically involve either extremely happy or irritable mood, accompanied by other changes in behavior, such as increased activity, decreased need for sleep, grandiose thinking, and racing thoughts. Mixed episodes involve the simultaneous occurrence of depressive and manic symptoms. Sometimes individuals with bipolar disorder experience psychotic symptoms (such as delusions and hallucinations) during the mood episodes, but...