Series Editor: Bin He University of Minnesota Minneapolis, Minnesota MODELING AND IMAGING OF BIOELECTRICAL ACTIVITY Principles and Applications Edited by Bin He BIOLOGICAL NANOSTRUCTURES AND APPLICATIONS OF NANOSTRUCTURES IN BIOLOGY Electrical, Mechanical, and Optical Properties Edited by Michael A. Stroscio and Mitra Dutta NEURAL ENGINEERING Edited by Bin He
Biological Nanostructures and Applications of Nanostructures in Biology Electrical, Mechanical, and Optical Properties
Michael A. Stroscio and Mitra Dutta
University of Illinois at Chicago Chicago, Illinois
KLUWER ACADEMIC PUBLISHERS
NEW YORK, BOSTON, DORDRECHT, LONDON, MOSCOW
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Nanostructures are playing a fundamental role in the advancement of biology as a result of the continuing dramatic progress in understanding the electronic, optical, and mechanical properties of an ever increasing variety of nanostructures. This book on “Biological Nanostructures and Applications of Nanostructures in Biology: Electrical, Mechanical, and Optical Properties” highlights recent past advances at the interface between the science and technology of nanostructures and the science of biology. Moreover, this book supplements these past groundbreaking discoveries with discussions of promising new avenues of research that reveal the enormous potential of emerging approaches in nanobiotechnology. A dominant trend of the last two decades has been down scaling of electronic, optoelectronic, and mechanical devices and structures from micron scale to those with features into the nano-dimensional regime. In most cases, this downscaling has not been possible without taking into account the dramatic differences between micron-scale phenomena that may be described frequently in terms of classical theories and nanoscale phenomena that generally require the consideration of quantum nature of matter. Moreover, many new technologies – such as those of heteroepitaxy, synthesis of carbon nanotubes, and synthesis of nanostructures through colloidal chemistry – have emerged and been developed. In recent years, these developments have been recognized as offering powerful tools in the quest to advance the basic understanding of biological systems as well as in biomedical applications of nanotechnology. As an example of a widespread application of nanotechnology, the diversity of heterojunctions as well as dramatic advances in semiconductor growth and processing technologies are opening the way to new heterojunction-device technologies and leading to many new avenues for realizing novel families of quantum-based electronic and optoelectronic devices and systems. Even more important from the perspective of biological applications, the alreadylarge number of applications of advanced semiconductor heterostructures is increasing rapidly and is becoming more diversified as illustrated by the wide range of uses of layered quantum dots in biological applications. As highlighted in this book, these applications include using quantum dots for biological tags as well as for active optical and electrical interface with biological systems such as neurons.
Indeed, advanced semiconductor heterostructures can be expected contribute to revolutionary advances in medical applications...