Application of Biotechnology Amulya K. Panda
Scientist National Institute of Immunology Jawahar Lal Nehru University Campus Aruna Asaf Ali Marg New Delhi – 110067
CONTENTS Introduction Application on industrial production of biomolecules Human therapeutics from recombinant DNA technology Success story of Insulin Host used for therapeutic production Safety of the recombinant biomolecules Human monoclonal antibody Application in Agriculture Development of stress tolerant plant Development of plant having improved yield Transgenic plant as a source of bio pharmaceuticals Application in environments
Recombinant proteins; Insulin; Monoclonal antibody; Immunogenicity; Transgenic plant; Stress tolerant plant; Plant as bioreactor; Bioremediation
Introduction Biotechnology essentially involves the industrial application of living organism to produce product or process for the betterment of humanity. Long before the new biology in the name of recombinant DNA technology came in to play; living organisms have been used for producing useful compounds. This involves production of alcohol using yeast and fermented food like curd. However the real exploitation of living organism started with the discovery of penicillin around 1930. Ever since the living organisms particularly bacteria, yeast, fungus and viruses have been exploited to produce many important biomolecules starting from simple chemicals like acetic acid, citric acid to antibiotics, vitamins hormones, enzymes, steroids and vaccines. The living organisms have also been used as a catalyst to carry out many enzymatic biotransformation reactions to produce complex organism molecules which otherwise are difficult to produce using chemical synthesis route. Apart from this, the metabolic activities of the living organism have been exploited to carry out new biotechnological process, notable among them have been extraction of minerals using Thiobacillus and... [continues]
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