Biostatistics

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Basic Biostatistics for Geneticists and Epidemiologists
A Practical Approach
Robert C. Elston
Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Case Western Reserve University, USA.

William D. Johnson
Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Louisiana State University System, USA.

A John Wiley and Sons, Ltd, Publication

Basic Biostatistics for Geneticists and Epidemiologists

Basic Biostatistics for Geneticists and Epidemiologists
A Practical Approach
Robert C. Elston
Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Case Western Reserve University, USA.

William D. Johnson
Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Louisiana State University System, USA.

A John Wiley and Sons, Ltd, Publication

This edition first published 2008 © 2008 John Wiley & Sons Ltd Registered office John Wiley & Sons Ltd, The Atrium, Southern Gate, Chichester, West Sussex, PO19 8SQ, United Kingdom For details of our global editorial offices, for customer services and for information about how to apply for permission to reuse the copyright material in this book please see our website at www.wiley.com. The right of the author to be identified as the author of this work has been asserted in accordance with the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, except as permitted by the UK Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988, without the prior permission of the publisher. Wiley also publishes its books in a variety of electronic formats. Some content that appears in print may not be available in electronic books. Designations used by companies to distinguish their products are often claimed as trademarks. All brand names and product names used in this book are trade names, service marks, trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective owners. The publisher is not associated with any product or vendor mentioned in this book. This publication is designed to provide accurate and authoritative information in regard to the subject matter covered. It is sold on the understanding that the publisher is not engaged in rendering professional services. If professional advice or other expert assistance is required, the services of a competent professional should be sought. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Elston, Robert C., 1932– Basic biostatistics for geneticists and epidemiologists : a practical approach / Robert C. Elston, William D. Johnson. p. ; cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-0-470-02489-8 (hbk) — ISBN 978-0-470-02490-4 (pbk.) 1. Medical statistics. 2. Medical genetics—Statistical methods. 3. Epidemiology—Statistical methods. I. Johnson, William Davis, 1941– II. Title. [DNLM: 1. Biometry—methods. 2. Data Collection. 3. Epidemiologic Methods. 4. Genetics, Medical. WA 950 E49b 2008] R853.S7E48 2008 610.72—dc22 2008038609 A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library ISBN 978-0-470-02489-8 (Hbk) ISBN 978-0-470-02490-4 (Pbk) Set in 11/13.5pt Newcaledonia by Integra Software Services Pvt. Ltd, Pondicherry, India Printed in the UK by Antony Rowe Ltd, Chippenham, Wiltshire

CONTENTS

PREFACE 1 INTRODUCTION: THE ROLE AND RELEVANCE OF STATISTICS, GENETICS AND EPIDEMIOLOGY IN MEDICINE Why Biostatistics? What Exactly Is (Are) Statistics? Reasons for Understanding Statistics What Exactly is Genetics? What Exactly is Epidemiology? How Can a Statistician Help Geneticists and Epidemiologists? Disease Prevention versus Disease Therapy A Few Examples: Genetics, Epidemiology and Statistical Inference Summary References 2 POPULATIONS, SAMPLES, AND STUDY DESIGN The Study of Cause and Effect Populations, Target Populations and Study Units Probability Samples and Randomization Observational Studies Family Studies Experimental Studies Quasi-Experimental Studies Summary Further Reading...
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