Biopsychosocial and Biomedical Model of Health

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Human beliefs about the causes of illness and injury vary from one era to another. In the Neolithic times (c.a 8000- 9000 b.c ), illness and injury being common phenomena’s, were directly associated to natural events manipulated by higher powers which also controlled climate changes and other natural events. Overtime, healing ceremonies, songs, sacred objects, and incantations were developed as means of pacifying the evil forces which were believed to cause diseases, and illnesses. Then, during the period of intellectual development, ways of western medicine was first implemented by Hippocrates, who was regarded to as the most celebrated Greek practitioner and till date is known as the father of medicine. Hippocrates helped overcome the superstitious treatment by reinforcing western medical treatment techniques. Hippocrates applied a practical way of treating unwell individuals, that is, by making observations, such as taking temperature, respiration rate, putting his ear to the patient’s chest to hear the individuals heart beat, moreover, he promoted the idea of prognosis, where a forecast is made of a disease, according to him, this forecast, gave the patient knowledge about his or her condition and indirectly influenced, the being’s mental and physical condition. From these interactions with other people and experiences, Hippocrates wrote about health and healing. After him came Claudius Galen, a greek physician who referred to disease causing organisms as the source of diseases and illness. These organisms are today called pathogens – bacteria, virus and other infectious agents, until his theory came into light diseases and illness were viewed as consequences of evil acts, and in order to be freed of such acts, the individual was made to repent. Following which came the period of renaissance, Van Leeuwenhoek invented the microscope, which helped look into details of pathogens and their effects, following him, Harvey studied the mechanical principles related to the body, hence, discovering the effects of various illnesses on the body. Then came Sydenham, who popularized the techniques of clinical diagnosis , by following Hippocrates ways, after whom came lavioser, who described the nature of respiration. Subsequentially, Jenner implemented the practice of vaccination which reduced the occurrence of small pox, by the mid 1800’s Pasteur and Koch made important discoveries about bacterias and diseases. In 1846 anesthesia was introduced by Morton while roentgen discover X-rays by 1893. By the 1900’s medicine was established as a clinical science, and with the approval of the administration of penicillin by the 1943’s treatment for most of the basic illnesses and infections was achieved. Things evolved in this century from, leeches sucking blood out of the system transforming into dialysis where, waste products were mechanically filtered out of the body, while ear to heart auscultation was no more a technique in fashion due to the invention of computerized axial tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography. Clinicians had a wide range of pharmaceutical agents and instruments to conduct a variety of experiments and treatments. New drugs evolved, as did technologies. The 20th century became the era during which medicine was established clinically with surgeries and protection of the World War II soldiers becoming the issue of prime importance. The physical aspects of illness were of great regard. Surgical methods were practiced on injured soldiers and nutrients were passed through their fluid enemas while fluids were passed through the colons of the ill soldiers. After stepping into the modern era, Max Weber, stated that, it is wealth and god’s graces that determined health, this theory is well applicable till today, where, wealth and health share a positive relationship as education and wealth provide sources for medical treatments and hence good health. However in many parts of the world,...
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