TOPIC: BIOMEDICAL WASTE
|SR. NO. |TOPIC |pg. no. | |1 |An Overview of Biomedical Waste Management |3 | |2 |Biodegradable & Non-degradable Wastes |6 | |3 |Hazards associated with Poor Health Care Waste Management |7 | |4 |Persons at risk of the hazards of medical procedures |8 | |5 |Rules & regulations governing the disposal of Biomedical Waste |9 | |6 |The different Hospital Waste categories |10 | |7 |The concept of Biosafety |11 | |8 |Disposal of Biomedical Waste |15 | |9 |Legal aspects related to Biomedical Waste Management |16 | |10 |Mumbai Scenario |23 | |11 |BIBLIOGRAPHY |27 |
AN OVERVIEW OF BIOMEDICAL WASTE MANAGEMENT
A hospital produces many types of waste material. Housekeeping activity generates considerable amount of trash, and the visitors and others bring with them food and other materials which must in some way be disposed off. In addition to the waste that is produced in all resident buildings, hospital generate pathological waste viz. blood soaked dressings, carcasses and similar waste. These waste materials must be suitably disposed of immediately lest they purify, emit foul smells, act as a source of infection and disease, and become a public health hazard. While in developing countries most of the public health problems are due to industrialization, in developing countries many of the public health problems are also related to defective sewage and waste disposal.
Many of our hospitals neither have a satisfactory waste disposal system nor a waste management and disposal policy. The disposal of waste is exclusively entrusted to the junior most staff from the housekeeping department without any supervision, and even pathological wastes are observed to be disposed off in the available open ground around hospitals with scant regard to aesthetic and hygiene considerations.
‘Waste” can be defined as any discarded unwanted residual matter arising from the hospitals or activities related to the hospitals. “Disposal” covers the total process of collecting, handling, packing, storage, transportation and final treatment of wastes.
In a study of patterns of wastes in Indian cities, the quantity of refuge varied from 0.48 to 0.06 kg per capita per day with total compostable matter varying from 30 to 40 percent. The quantum of domestic waste in advanced countries is six to ten times more. So far as hospitals in advanced countries are considered, the average refuge in hospitals in Denmark and West Germany is 3kg per bed per day. The quantum and types of waste reflects the life style of the society, and this fact must be borne in mind in the planning or waste disposal in hospital.
On an average, the volume of total solid waste in hospitals in India is estimated to range...