Biomechanics of Volleyball

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1.0  Abstract
The purpose of this experiment is to analyze the efficiency and technique of the students over arm volleyball serve after the use of biomechanical principles has been applied. In order to complete the experiment the student performed a pre and post test which was evaluated by the program Dartfish and a serving indicator test to assess the changes and improvements of the students technique and performance of the over arm serve. It was found that by applying the three biomechanical principles to the students serve the technique improved from the pre test to the post test as the serve became stronger, faster and longer. 2.0 Introduction

2.1
The intention of this report is to use the principles of biomechanics to analyze the efficiency and to improve the skill of the volley ball over-arm serve of a student from Mrs. Crellins year 11 PE class. Biomechanics is the field of study which makes use of the laws of physics and engineering concepts to describe motion of body segments, the forces which act upon them during activity, and the efficiency of movement. (Jacob’s university book). The benefits of biomechanics are to develop new skills, detect errors in movement, improve safety, prevent injury, develop new equipment and form a basis of high quality and performance. The ultimate goal in sports biomechanics is the performance improvement of skills (source-howell). Biomechanics is applied in the volley ball serve by assisting the student to detect errors in the skill, improve safety and to effectively improve the skill itself by the way it is performed.  

2.2
There are four steps in biomechanical analysis which include identifying; the objective of the skill, the movement patterns, skill classification and the skill phases. The objective of the over-arm volleyball serve is to get the ball over the net successfully at a fast, forceful, downward angle to ensure that it is harder for the opposition to return the ball back over the net. Movement patterns allow to identify the specific skills that fit within a given pattern. The movement pattern for the over-arm serve includes; throwing the ball in the air, striking it over the net and standing. Skill phases are the breaking down of the skill into meaningful phases, each of which may be quite different in terms of technique and the underlying biomechanical principles (Amezdroz et al. 2004). In the volleyball serve the skill phase is identified as the toss (refer appendix…), bow and arrow (refer appendix…) and the strike follow-through (appendix…). The skill classification of the over-arm serve includes discrete, closed, non-locomotor, and gross. The skill is classified that way as it has a distinct beginning and end, uses the larger muscles of the body, is performed in a highly predictable environment and as it is manipulative skill that occurs on one spot.  

2.3
If biomechanical principles are applied to the students over-arm volleyball serve then the skill should improve as using the correct technique should make it hard, long and fast.  
3.0 Research Methodology
3.1
There are three major principles of biomechanics that come into analysis when evaluating the technique of a skill. These three principles are force and momentum, inertia and levers and projectile motion. This background knowledge of biomechanical principles assists in the learning of the over-arm volleyball serve by applying the techniques to them for improvement. Pre and post tests will both be performed with Dartfish being used to evaluate the video footage and a serving indicator to analyse the efficiency of the serve. 3.2

Force and momentum can be broken down into three subcategories of: linear momentum, summing momentum and generating momentum. Though throughout the skill acquisition of the volleyball serve the concepts of summing and generating momentum were applied to assist in both the learning and improvement. The concepts of inertia and levers were also used during the learning...
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