Biomass Energy

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Biomass
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course

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course

Contents
Abstract3
Introduction3
Types of Biomass4
Wood and Agriculture related biomass4
Solid Waste4
Landfill Gas5
Alcohol Fuels5
Advantages of Biomass Energy6
Emission Does Not Harm6
Clean Energy6
Renewability and Abundance7
Reduction of Dependence on Fossil oil7
Reduction of Landfills7
Production of Variety of Biomass Products7
Disadvantages of Biomass Energy8
Costs More8
Deficient as compared other sources;8
Environmental Damages;8
Consumption of More Fuel;8
More Land Area Is Required;8
Why Biomass?9
Biomass Energy Processes9
Co-Firing Process;9
Thermal Conversion;10
Gasification;10
Pyrolysis;10
Torrefaction;10
Chemical Conversion;10
Fermentation;11
Biochemical;11
Conclusion11
References12

Abstract
Biomass energy is derived from the organic matters which have been spread across the earth in abundance. Biomass energy consists of wood and agricultural biomass, solid wastes, landfills gas and alcohol fuels. There are important characteristics of biomass energy which distinct it from other kind of sources. Firstly it is environment friendly. In most cases, the emission of carbon dioxide is smaller as compared to the emission of its counterparts. Whatever quantity biomass energy emits, it takes back during the growth of the agricultural related products in during photosynthesis process. Secondly, the supply of biomass products is renewable. Almost all the nations of the world have been in possession of the organic substances in different forms. So, the local supply of biomass relieves an oil importing countries from foreign oil and saves their foreign exchange reserves. Thirdly, the disposal of industry and domestic wastes is a pains-taking issue. Such wastes may usefully consumed by converting it into the biomass energy. Biomass energy has some disadvantages; it is costly and involves difficult processes. The process of conversion of biomass includes combustion process and non-combustion process; informer the temperature is used while in non-combustion process the conversion is taken place chemically. Introduction

The source of biomass is organic substances. It is a kind of energy. The ultimate source of biomass is the sun. A process is taken place in all plants which is called photosynthesis by which the plants consume chlorophyll for the conversion of energy coming from sun to the energy which is storable in the plants. The ingredients of the growth of plant are water, nutrients and the process of photosynthesis. It is renewable organic substance consisting of vegetation and wastes having plant matter. The wastes consisting of plant matter include forestry, crops and residues, wastes of animals, wastes of some industries and solid wastes collected by municipal department. Types of Biomass

Wood and Agriculture related biomass
The major portion of biomass energy is home grown. Four products of biomass; first wood-logs; second wood chips; third bark; and fourth sawdust make 79% of the energy coming from biomass. Yet, biomass may be produced from any matter of organic substance (earthsciencebiomass.tripod.com, 2013). Crops produced for energy are called energy crops. Such crops may readily be used for fuel. Energy crops include short rotation crops, miscanthus, Pellets. Pellets are a solid fuel containing low water content, 8% maximum. It is made of sawdust, bark, woodchips etc. Due this, pellets are easy to be transported, stored and converted to the energy. These crops were included in Energy Crops Scheme of England which seeks the increase in the area being set aside for such crops by employing grants. Solid Waste

Burning trash is not novel idea. Burning trash for electricity generation is, of course, innovation. This is conversion of wastes into the useful kind of energy. It is estimated...
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