Biology Test Notes

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Biology, 7e (Campbell)
Chapter 17: From Gene to Protein

Chapter Questions

1) Garrod hypothesized that "inborn errors of metabolism" such as alkaptonuria occur because A) genes dictate the production of specific enzymes, and affected individuals have genetic defects that cause them to lack certain enzymes. B) enzymes are made of DNA, and affected individuals lack DNA polymerase. C) many metabolic enzymes use DNA as a cofactor, and affected individuals have mutations that prevent their enzymes from interacting efficiently with DNA. D) certain metabolic reactions are carried out by ribozymes, and affected individuals lack key splicing factors. E) metabolic enzymes require vitamin cofactors, and affected individuals have significant nutritional deficiencies. Answer: A

Topic: Concept 17.1
Skill: Knowledge

The following questions refer to the following simple metabolic pathway:

2) According to Beadle and Tatum's hypothesis, how many genes are necessary for this pathway? A) 0
B) 1
C) 2
D) 3
E) It cannot be determined from the pathway.
Answer: C
Topic: Concept 17.1
Skill: Comprehension

3) A mutation results in a defective enzyme A. Which of the following would be a consequence of that mutation? A) an accumulation of A and no production of B and C
B) an accumulation of A and B and no production of C
C) an accumulation of B and no production of A and C
D) an accumulation of B and C and no production of A
E) an accumulation of C and no production of A and B
Answer: A
Topic: Concept 17.1
Skill: Comprehension

4) If A, B, and C are all required for growth, a strain that is mutant for the gene encoding enzyme A would be able to grow on which of the following media? A) minimal medium
B) minimal medium supplemented with nutrient "A"
C) minimal medium supplemented with nutrient "B"
D) minimal medium supplemented with nutrient "C"
E) Answers C and D are correct.
Answer: E
Topic: Concept 17.1
Skill: Application

5) If A, B, and C are all required for growth, a strain mutant for the gene encoding enzyme B would be capable of growing on which of the following media? A) minimal medium
B) minimal medium supplemented with "A"
C) minimal medium supplemented with "B"
D) minimal medium supplemented with "C"
E) answers B and C
Answer: D
Topic: Concept 17.1
Skill: Application

6) We now know that the one gene-one enzyme hypothesis is not entirely accurate because A) many genes code for proteins that are not enzymes.
B) a single gene codes for a single polypeptide chain, and many enzymes are made up of more than one polypeptide chain. C) many genes code for RNA molecules that have no enzymatic activity. D) A and B only

E) A, B, and C
Answer: E
Topic: Concept 17.1
Skill: Comprehension

7) Which of the following represents a similarity between RNA and DNA? A) Both are double-stranded.
B) the presence of uracil
C) the presence of an OH group on the 2' carbon of the sugar D) nucleotides consisting of a phosphate, sugar, and nitrogenous base E) Both are found exclusively in the nucleus.
Answer: D
Topic: Concept 17.1
Skill: Comprehension

8) The nitrogenous base adenine is found in all members of which group? A) proteins, triglycerides, and testosterone
B) proteins, ATP, and DNA
C) ATP, RNA, and DNA
D) alpha glucose, ATP, and DNA
E) proteins, carbohydrates, and ATP
Answer: C
Topic: Concept 17.1
Skill: Knowledge

9) Using RNA as a template for protein synthesis instead of translating proteins directly from the DNA is advantageous for the cell because A) RNA is much more stable than DNA.
B) RNA acts as an expendable copy of the genetic material, allowing the DNA to serve as a permanent, pristine repository of the genetic material. C) many mRNA molecules can be transcribed from a single gene, increasing the potential rate of gene expression. D) B and C only

E) A, B, and C
Answer: D
Topic: Concept 17.1
Skill: Comprehension

10) If proteins were composed of only 12...
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