Biology Study Guide Second Semester

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Biology Guide
1. How is the human body organized?
A= The levels of organization in the body include cells, tissues, organs, and organ systems. 2. Define cell
A= Basic unit of structure and function in living things.
3. Define Tissue
A= Group of cells that perform a single function.
4. CHECK OUT TYPES OF TISSUE ON PG. 863
5. What’s the epithelial tissue?
A= Tissue that lines the interior and exterior body surfaces. 6. Connective tissue?
A= Tissue that provides support for the body and connects its parts. 7. Nervous tissue?
A= Tissue were nerve impulses are transmitted throughout the body. 8. Muscle tissue?
A= Tissue that makes the movements of the body possible.
9. What are organs?
A= Different types of tissues that work together to perform a single function or several related functions. 10. What is an organ system?
A= Group of organs that perform closely related functions.
11. CHECK OUT PG. 864 FOR SYSTEMS.
12. Define homeostasis
A= Describes the relatively constant internal physical and chemical conditions that organisms maintain despite changes in internal and external environments. 13. Define Feedback Inhibition
A= Process in which a stimulus produces a response that opposes the original stimulus. 14. Why do we need to eat?
A= Food supplies raw materials your body needs to build and repair tissues. Molecules in food contain chemical energy that cells use to produce ATP. 15. Define calorie
A= Measure of heat energy in food.
16. What nutrients does our body need?
A= Water, carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, and minerals. 17. Define carbohydrates
A= Atoms composed of C, H, and O atoms; these are the major source of energy. 18. Define fat
A= Type of nutrient that protects body organs, insulates the body organs, insulates the body and stores energy. 19. Define protein
A= These supply raw materials for growth and repair of structures such as skin and muscle. 20. Define vitamins
A= Organic molecules that the body needs in very small amounts. 21. Define minerals
A= Inorganic nutrients that the body needs, usually in small amounts. 22. What is meant by the term “balanced diet”?
A= That it’s a diet that provides nutrients in adequate amounts and enough energy for a person to maintain a healthful weight. 23. Describe the functions of the digestive system?
A= The digestive system converts food into small molecules that can be used by the cells of the body by the following phases: INGESTION – The food is introduced in the mouth.
DIGESTION – The food is then broken down by mechanical digestion, whose process consists in the PHYSICAL breakdown of large pieces of food, and the chemical digestion, whose process consist in breaking down the food into small molecules the body can use by the use of enzymes. ABSORPTION – Where the small intestine’s cells absorbs the small food molecules. ELIMINATION – The elimination of some materials through feces. 24. What’s saliva?

A= It helps to moisten the food and make it easier to chew.
25. What is amylase?
A= Enzyme that begins to break the chemical bonds in starches, forming sugars. 26. What Is the esophagus?
A= Tube that passes food to the stomach.
27. What are peristalses?
A= Smooth muscles that provide the force that moves food through the esophagus through toward the stomach. 28. What is the stomach?
A= A large muscular sac that continues the chemical and mechanical digestion of food. 29. What is pepsin?
A= Enzyme that breaks proteins into smaller polypeptide fragments. 30. Where most of the chemical digestion and absorption of food does occurs? A= In the small intestine.
31. Mention the functions of the pancreas
A= It produces hormones that regulate blood sugar levels and it produces sodium bicarbonate, a base that quickly neutralizes stomach acid. 32. What does the liver produce?
A= It produces bile, a fluid loaded with lipids and salts.
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