Cell Division/ DNA / Protein Synthesis Study guide
AA: Simple definition
AA: Simple explanation
AA: Detailed explanation/drawing
1. What is transformation?
* Movement of a gene from one organism to another
2. What did Griffith show?
* Showed either protein or DNA causes transformation
3. What did Avery show?
* Showed that DNA causes transformation or that DNA is hereditary material
4. What did Hershey & Chase show and how did they do it?
* Showed DNA is the hereditary material
5. What is Chargaff's rule?
* Purines = Pyrimidines => Adenine=Thymine, Cytosine=Guanine
6. What did Rosalind Franklin do?
* X-ray diffraction experiments
* Revealed that DNA had the shape of a helix
7. What did Watson and Crick do?
* Built DNA model out of tinker toys
8. What is DNA and what is its structure?
* A double-stranded(double helix) nucleic acid that contains the genetic information for cell growth, division, and function.
9. What makes up the sides of the DNA 'ladder', and how are they bonded?
* Sugar, phosphate, sugar, phosphate… bonded by covalent bonds
10. What makes up the rungs of the DNA 'ladder' and how are they bonded?
* A, T, C, and G bonded by hydrogen bonds
11. Why does A bond with T and G bond with C?
* Chargaff’s rule: Purines = Pyrimidines
12. How are DNA and RNA similar and different?
* Similar: both carry genetic information/ consist of a sugar, nucleotide and a phosphate/
* DNA: DNA has deoxy ribose/ DNA is ONLY found in the nucleus/ double stranded/ much longer
* RNA: RNA has ribose/ RNA can be found both within and outside the nucleus/ single stranded/ has uracil instead of thymine
13. What does antiparallel mean?
* Opposite orientations of the two strands of a DNA double helix; the 5' end of one strand aligns with the 3' end of the other strand
14. Does each strand carry the same gene?... [continues]
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