Biology Study Guide: Cell Division, Dna, Protein Synthesis

Page 1 of 7

Biology Study Guide: Cell Division, Dna, Protein Synthesis

By | April 2012
Page 1 of 7
Eddie Lai
Clark 7
12/15/11

Cell Division/ DNA / Protein Synthesis Study guide
AA: Simple definition
AA: Simple explanation
AA: Detailed explanation/drawing
AA: Questions

1. What is transformation?
* Movement of a gene from one organism to another

2. What did Griffith show?
* Showed either protein or DNA causes transformation

3. What did Avery show?
* Showed that DNA causes transformation or that DNA is hereditary material

4. What did Hershey & Chase show and how did they do it? * Showed DNA is the hereditary material

5. What is Chargaff's rule?
* Purines = Pyrimidines => Adenine=Thymine, Cytosine=Guanine

6. What did Rosalind Franklin do?
* X-ray diffraction experiments
* Revealed that DNA had the shape of a helix

7. What did Watson and Crick do?
* Built DNA model out of tinker toys

8. What is DNA and what is its structure?
* A double-stranded(double helix) nucleic acid that contains the genetic information for cell growth, division, and function.

9. What makes up the sides of the DNA 'ladder', and how are they bonded? * Sugar, phosphate, sugar, phosphate… bonded by covalent bonds

10. What makes up the rungs of the DNA 'ladder' and how are they bonded? * A, T, C, and G bonded by hydrogen bonds

11. Why does A bond with T and G bond with C?
* Chargaff’s rule: Purines = Pyrimidines

12. How are DNA and RNA similar and different?
* Similar: both carry genetic information/ consist of a sugar, nucleotide and a phosphate/ * DNA: DNA has deoxy ribose/ DNA is ONLY found in the nucleus/ double stranded/ much longer * RNA: RNA has ribose/ RNA can be found both within and outside the nucleus/ single stranded/ has uracil instead of thymine

13. What does antiparallel mean?
* Opposite orientations of the two strands of a DNA double helix; the 5' end of one strand aligns with the 3' end of the other strand

14. Does each strand carry the same gene?...