Biology Study Guide: Cell Division, Dna, Protein Synthesis

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Eddie Lai
Clark 7
12/15/11

Cell Division/ DNA / Protein Synthesis Study guide
AA: Simple definition
AA: Simple explanation
AA: Detailed explanation/drawing
AA: Questions

1. What is transformation?
* Movement of a gene from one organism to another

2. What did Griffith show?
* Showed either protein or DNA causes transformation

3. What did Avery show?
* Showed that DNA causes transformation or that DNA is hereditary material

4. What did Hershey & Chase show and how did they do it? * Showed DNA is the hereditary material

5. What is Chargaff's rule?
* Purines = Pyrimidines => Adenine=Thymine, Cytosine=Guanine

6. What did Rosalind Franklin do?
* X-ray diffraction experiments
* Revealed that DNA had the shape of a helix

7. What did Watson and Crick do?
* Built DNA model out of tinker toys

8. What is DNA and what is its structure?
* A double-stranded(double helix) nucleic acid that contains the genetic information for cell growth, division, and function.

9. What makes up the sides of the DNA 'ladder', and how are they bonded? * Sugar, phosphate, sugar, phosphate… bonded by covalent bonds

10. What makes up the rungs of the DNA 'ladder' and how are they bonded? * A, T, C, and G bonded by hydrogen bonds

11. Why does A bond with T and G bond with C?
* Chargaff’s rule: Purines = Pyrimidines

12. How are DNA and RNA similar and different?
* Similar: both carry genetic information/ consist of a sugar, nucleotide and a phosphate/ * DNA: DNA has deoxy ribose/ DNA is ONLY found in the nucleus/ double stranded/ much longer * RNA: RNA has ribose/ RNA can be found both within and outside the nucleus/ single stranded/ has uracil instead of thymine

13. What does antiparallel mean?
* Opposite orientations of the two strands of a DNA double helix; the 5' end of one strand aligns with the 3' end of the other strand

14. Does each strand carry the same gene? (Explain)
* No it does not, instead it carries the complimentary gene to the one on the strand

15. What is DNA replication and where does it occur?
* DNA replication is the process where the DNA strand is split in two and a new strand is formed onto to the old ones, making new DNA. Occurs in nucleus.

16. What is Semiconservative Replication?
* DNA replication that produces two copies, one of the original strand and one of the new strand

17. What did Meselson-Stahl show?
* Out of conservative, dispersive, and Semiconservative replication, they find out Semiconservative was correct

18. What are leading and lagging strands and why do they occur? * Leading Strand: The DNA strand that is synthesized continuously * Lagging Strand: The DNA strand that is synthesized discontinuously from 5’ to 3’

19. What is Helicase?
* Unwinds the DNA to open the helix at the replication fork

20. What is DNA Polymerase?
* Adds complimentary nucleotides (A, T, C, G) along the leading/lagging strands

21. What are Okazaki fragments and what is Ligase?
* Okazaki fragments: pieces of DNA made on the lagging strand * Ligase: connects the Okazaki fragments

22. What are SSBPs?
* Single strand binding protein: holds the unzipped DNA open

23. What is Primase?
* Creates primers which provide a starting point for DNA polymerase

Accuracy & Repair

24. Proofreading, how are DNA 'errors' repaired?
* To start, the G2 checkpoint makes sure that cell is functioning properly to let it go through * Another way is through DNA polymerase. This checks if the nucleotides that it matched have been matched correctly

25. What is a mutation?
* Permanent/inheritable change in nucleotide sequence in gene/chromosome

26. What do mutations in Germ-Line Tissues do?
* They are hereditary mutations that continuously pass on through the generations

27. What do mutations in Somatic Tissues do?
* Non-hereditary mutations that...
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