* Define respiration
* State the uses of energy in the body of humans
* Define aerobic respiration
* State the equation for aerobic respiration using symbols
* Define anaerobic respiration
* State the word equation for anaerobic respiration in muscles during hard exercise
* State the balanced equation for anaerobic respiration in muscles (C6H12O6 → 2C3H6O3) and the microorganism yeast (C6H12O6 →2C2H5OH + 2CO2), using symbols
* Describe the effect of lactic acid in muscles during exercise
* Describe the role of anaerobic respiration in yeast during brewing and bread-making
* Compare aerobic respiration and anaerobic respiration in terms of relative amounts of energy released
* List the features of gas exchange surfaces in animals
* Identify on diagrams and name the larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli and associated capillaries
* Describe the role of the ribs, the internal and external intercostal muscles and the diaphragm in breathing
* State the differences in composition between inspired and expired air
* Use lime water as a test for carbon dioxide to investigate the differences in composition between inspired and expired air
* Explain the role of mucus and cilia in protecting the gas exchange system from pathogens and particles
* Investigate and describe the effects of physical activity on rate and depth of breathing
* Explain the link between physical activity and rate and depth of breathing in terms of changes in the rate at which tissues respire and therefore of carbon dioxide concentration and pH in tissues and in the blood
Respiration: It is the chemical reactions that break down nutrient molecules in
living cells to release energy.
Use of energy in the body of humans: In humans, our body use energy, released by respiration, for the following processes:
* Muscle contraction
* Cell division
* Absorption of... [continues]
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