Pulse rate is the number of times in a minute an artery pulsates or the rhythmic expansion and contraction, which indicates that a heartbeat has occurred. There are many factors which affect the pulse rate which includes: gender, age, body temperature, pain, emotion, exercise, blood pressure, consumption of stimulants, dehydration, body mass index (weight), fitness level, lifestyle and many more. In my investigation, I would be examining the affect of gender in the change in the pulse rates, while keeping the other factors constant.
The pulse rate is a measurement of the heart rate, or the number of times the heart beats per minute. As the heart pushes blood through the arteries, the arteries expand and contract with the flow of the blood. Taking a pulse not only measures the heart rate, but also can indicate the following: * heart rhythm
* strength of the pulse
The normal pulse for healthy adults ranges from 60 to 100 beats per minute. The pulse rate may fluctuate and increase with exercise, illness, injury, and emotions. Athletes, such as runners, who do a lot of cardiovascular conditioning, may have heart rates near 40 beats per minute and experience no problems. As the heart forces blood through the arteries, we feel the beats by firmly pressing on the arteries, which are located close to the surface of the skin at certain points of the body. The pulse can be found on the side of the lower neck, on the inside of the elbow, or at the wrist.
"Vital Signs (Body Temperature, Pulse Rate, Respiration Rate, Blood Pressure)." The Ohio State University Medical Center. Web. 29 Aug. 2010. <http://medicalcenter.osu.edu/patientcare/healthcare_services/emergency_services/non_traumatic_emergencies/vital_signs/Pages/index.aspx>.
My assumption is that the male gender will have a higher pulse rate than women. This is because, after a short research, I found out that males have a larger body mass than females, i.e they tend to have more muscle mass than that of a female. Increased muscle mass means that males will have to work harder to produce enough energy for his whole body. He will have to produce more oxygen for his muscle cells, as they will need more oxygen to function. Because males have more muscles, they need more oxygen to break down more glucose to produce more energy for him to move that muscle. This does happen in females, but not as much as males as they tend to have a slightly smaller muscle mass, therefore they won't require that extra amount of oxygen to work properly. Thus I predict that at rest, after standing up from rest and after exercising, both the male and females pulse rates will increase from rest, but males will have a higher pulse rate than that of female in all the cases.
Independent Variable: The independent variable in this investigation will be the number of people from each of the genders I will choose, that is male and female. This is because I will note the pulse rates of 10 male and 10 female and compare their pulse rates. This factor will be manipulated by keeping the age group of both the genders amidst 35-40.
Dependent Variable: The dependent variable in this investigation will be the pulse rate of the various people I will take while they are at rest, standing, and exercising. Because, the investigation is based on the difference in the pulse rates when gender is varied.
Constant Variable: The constant variable in this investigation will be the age group, exercise, and the body temperature, pain, emotion, blood pressure, BMI will be assumed as constant and the consumption of any stimulant is null. This is because; these are some of the other factors, which affect the pulse rates. If these are varied with the gender, the results will be incorrect. Thus, for getting accurate results, these factors will be manipulated by taking pulse rate of people between the age group of 35-40, the scale...