Explaining human and nonhuman behavior by reference to scientific laws and the theories expressed of physical states, events, and entities.
Because modern psychology emerged roughly in the mid-19th century.
Information of behaviorism was gathered in its early stages by introspection (looking at your own inner states of being; your own desires, feelings, and intentions) then linking them to the outside observable state.
Introspection is a notoriously unreliable method for gathering information for scientific theories. There are 2 problems:
1) The introspection data is private. It is impossible for someone from the outside to know the inner states of someone else.
Science demands publicly observable events for a community of scientists to confirm or reject empirical hypothesis by designing and testing experiments in an open arena for all other scientists to observe.
2) There is very little access to one's total mental being (consciousness) since so much of it has been repressed into the unconscious.
1913 - J.D. Watson proposed the only proper object of study in psychology is behavior.
Behavior is publicly observable .
A team of scientists can observe the same phenomenon under investigation. They can then formulate a hypothesis to account for those behaviors. They can then form experiments so they can confirm or reject those hypothesis designed to explain the behavior of organisms.
"the father of behaviorism"
Exclusive attention given to publicly observable behavior.
There will be no discussions on dreams, hopes, desires, feelings, or internal events.
They must be avoided since they don't offer explanatory value.
Skinner deserves most of the credit.
Behavior is the product of heredity (5%) and environment (95%).
Marx is an economical determinist, Freud is the mental determinist, Skinner/Watson are... [continues]
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