Biology Lecture Notes

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Chapter 1
Lecture Outlines


1.1 The Diversity of Life
•  Biology is the study of living things •  Living things are diverse •  There are enough similarities among some living things that they can be grouped into the same kingdom •  Members of different kingdoms are usually very different from each other 2

Figure 1.1 The Six Kingdoms of Life
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Archaea. This kingdom of prokaryotes (the simplest of cells that do not have nuclei) includes this methanogen, which manufactures methane as a result of its metabolic activity.

Bacteria. This group is the second of the two prokaryotic kingdoms. Shown here are purple sulfur bacteria, which are able to convert light energy into chemical energy.

Protista. Most of the unicellular eukaryotes (those whose cells contain a nucleus) are grouped into this kingdom, and so are the multicellular algae pictured here.

Fungi. This kingdom contains nonphotosynthetic organisms, mostly multicellular, that digest their food externally, such as these mushrooms.

Plantae. This kingdom contains photosynthetic multicellular organisms that are terrestrial, such as the flowering plant pictured here.

Animalia. Organisms in this kingdom are nonphotosynthetic multicellular organisms that digest their food internally, such as this ram.


(Achaea): © R. Robinson/Visuals Unlimited; (bacteria): © Alfred Pasieka/Science Photo Library/Photo Researchers; (protista, plantae): © Corbis RF; (fungi, animalia): © Getty RF

Classifying Life s Diversity
•  Scientists group organisms, based on similarities, into six kingdoms •  Each of the six kingdoms can be assigned, on the basis of cell structure, into one of three larger groups called domains


Figure 1.14 The three domains of life
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.











The Classification of Living Things
•  Living organisms - assigned to groups based upon their similarities •  Systematics is the discipline of identifying and classifying organisms.

•  Domains- largest classification category •  Higher level than kingdoms •  Biologists assign organisms to 1 of 3 domains based on biochemical and genetic evidence

Domain Archaea
•  Archaea- singlecelled organisms that lack a membranebound nucleus. •  Archaea can be found in environments that are too hostile for other life forms.

Domain Bacteria
•  Bacteria are singlecelled organisms that lack a membranebound nucleus. •  Bacteria are found almost everywhere on the planet Earth.

Domain Eukarya
•  The cells of all eukaryotes have a membranebound nucleus •  Members of Domain Eukarya are further categorized into 1 of 4 Kingdoms (new classification)

Categories of Classification
Domain Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species Most inclusive

Least inclusive

Categories of Classification

Scientific Names
•  Binomial (two name)
–  Genus name, species name – Examples: » Homo sapiens » Pisum sativum » Felis domesticus

1.2 Properties of Life
•  What qualifies something as living versus nonliving? •  Consider these points – complexity – movement – response to stimulation •  A life-defining property must be exclusive to living things 14

Basic Properties of Life
•  1. Cellular organization –  all living things are comprised of at least one cell •  2. Metabolism –  all living things process energy which is used to power other processes •  3. Homeostasis –  all living things maintain stable internal environments to optimize conditions for metabolism and other processes


Basic Properties of Life
•  4. Growth and reproduction
–  all organisms have the capacity for growth and reproduction

•  5. Heredity
–  all organisms pass genetic information across generations from...
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