Biology exam review
Protista, Fungi, Plantae, Animalia.
# of cells
Cell walls made of peptidolglycan (coat of sugars)
Cell walls without peptidoglycan
Fungi-cell walls with chitin.
Protista-cell walls of cellulose in some, and in others chloroplasts. Plantae-cell walls of cellulose, chloroplasts
Animalia-no cell or chloroplasts
Viruses: viruses are not made of cells, and cannot reproduce on their own. They are made of proteins and nucleic acids.
3 domains: Bacteria, Archea and Eukarya.
-Bacteria and Archea are unicellular (consists of single cell), they lack a nuclei, and also membrane bound organelles. Thus are called Prokaryotes. -Eukarya contains membrane bound organelles (nuclei). Thus are called eukaryote.
How bacteria reproduce
-The process is called Binary Fission. In Binary fission the DNA duplicates. the bacteria takes pieces of the DNA from the environment. Two bacterial cells, join and exchange genetic material. the cell divides.
The Kingdom: Protists
-All eukaryotes that are not animals, plants, or fungi are protists. -most protists are multicultural.
-contain organelles, a nucleus, etc.
-use pseudopodia (cellular extensions), cilia and flagella to move. Ex: zooflagelletes
-heterotrophs that capture and ingest food. Ex: amoeba.
Plant like protists
-autotrophs that make their own food. Ex: algae.
-fungi are heterotrophic, break down food themselves.
-made of hypae. Hyphae are tiny threads of cytoplasm.
-chitin builds their cell wall, chitin is a carbohydrate,
-produce asexually, when a piece of hyphae breaks off releasing spores.
Chapter 3: Plants
-plants are eukaryotic.
-carry out photosynthesis, using chlorophyll to transform sunlight into chemical energy. Alternation of Generations
-alternation between haploid and diploid forms.
-haploid generation produces egg and sperm called gametes. (called gametophyte) -diploid generation produces spores. (called sporophyte)
*memorize alternation of generations diagram (in textbook)
Major groups of plants:
-green algae, mosses, ferns, seed and flowering plants.
-closest relatives of plant ancestors, found in shallow water (ponds, lakes), Mosses
-group of plants called, bryophytes, grow close to the ground where they can obtain water easily. -do not have seed/stem, support structure, that allow them to stand up, transport water. -also called non-vascular plants.
-also called seedless vascular plants.
-grows close to the ground.
-can stand up.
-seeds that are not protected.
-embryo’s with a protective coat.
-adapt to dry land because of pollen grains. Pollen grains are male gametophyte, that develop into sperm. Flowering plants-angiosperm
-has structures that prevent water loss, and improve ability to reproduce. -seed is enclosed and protected by the flowers.
-have adaptations that attract animals/insects to transfer pollen directly. -wind-pollinated.
Radial symmetry-bodies are arranged like a cylinder
Bilateral symmetry-mirror-image at the right and left sides.
Invertebrates and Vertebrates
Vertebrates-animals with a backbone
Invertebrates-animals without a backbone
Threats to biodiversity
Habitat fragmentation-alters small areas within a large region. Invasive species-non-native species that harm ecosystems.
Overexploitation-unsustainable use of resources
Chapter 4: Genetics
Mitosis: Diploid, body cells, 1 replication, 1 division.
Meiosis-Haploid, sex cells, 1 replication, 2 division.
-egg and sperm cells are known as gametes,
-the egg produced by the fusion of the nuceli along with the cytoplasm is...
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