Biology Cheat Sheet

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Animals do not have cell walls, but do generally are multicellular, reproduce sexually and have gap junctions. Animals are ingesting heterotrophs; fungi have absorptive nutrition. Development order: fertilization, cleavages, blastula, gastrula and metamorphosis. Ancestor of animals: protozoa (choanoflagelate)

Know Animal Taxonomy including Lophotrocozoa!!!!
Only animals have hox genes
Sponge=perifera=parazoa=lacks true tissue
Eumetazoa=everything besides sponge
Cephalization=sensory organs in head regions (anterior end), brain and bilateral symmetry Mollusks=protostomes, annelids=protostomes, echinoderms=deuterostomes and chordates=deutersotomes. Everything aside from radial and sponges=triploblast.

Deuterstome=coelomate and bilateral symmetry w/ triploblast
Blastopore=first opening in development; can't see until gastrula protosomes=determinant cleavage, spiral, blastopore=mouth, schizocoelous most inclusive-tissue level=eumetazoa, symmetry=bilateral, triploblast, protosomes Evidence in evolution=genetic analysis

most body plans in existence have been around 500 million years (Cambrian) If you took 8 cells from a deuterstome embryo, you could make 8 individuals. That's not the case with a snail/ protostome. Humans=deuterstomes, coelomates, triploblasts, bilateral symmetry, eumetazoa. Cambrian explosion=huge diversity of animal kingdom, different locomotion, different predator prey relations, hox gene evolution and O2 buildup. archenteron=deuterstome

cartilege=condrifeus (?)
amniotic egg and water-resistant skin=reptile
reptiles successful in desert because of slow metabolism, ectothermic and scales snakes come from lizards
internal fertilizaton=mammals, some sharks, birds reptiles
2 chambered heart=osteichthys (bony fish)
bony fish hypothesized to have lived in fresh water before salt water. acheopterics=reptillian bird from Jurassic period thought to have caused birds to exist. pseudocoelomate, roundworm=nematoda
diploblast, radial...
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