Biology Chapter

Topics: Kidney, Blood, Liver Pages: 3 (669 words) Published: November 21, 2013
Chapter 1Regulation of water content
Exercise
Multiple-choice questions (p. 24)
1A
2D
3C
4C
5D
6B
7C

Short questions (p. 25)
8aUrea is a nitrogenous compound produced from deamination of excess amino acids in liver.1m
Urine is a liquid containing water, salts, urea and other unwanted substances. It is produced after ultrafiltration and reabsorption in the kidney.1m bPlasma is the liquid portion of blood. It contains water and substances including glucose, amino acids, salts, urea and plasma proteins.1m Glomerular filtrate is the fluid that is filtered out of the glomerulus into the Bowman’s capsule. Its composition is similar to plasma, except there are no plasma proteins.1m

cExcretion is the process of removal of metabolic waste from the body.1m Osmoregulation is the regulation of water content in relation to the amount of salts in the body.1m

9aUrea1m
bIt is to maintain the diffusion gradient between the blood and the dialysis fluid.1m
cIt is to prevent infection / contamination of the blood / the body system.1m

Structured questions (p. 25)
10HKCEE Human Biology 2005 I Q4a

11HKCEE Biology 2006 I Q9a
(a) (i) 6566.7%1
(ii)The urea content in urine is much higher because a large amount of water is reabsorbed/the amount of water reabsorbed along the kidney tubule is relatively much greater than that of urea1

(b)The water content of glomerular filtrate is greater than that of the plasma1
because protein is too large to pass the wall of the glomerulus and
that of the Bowman’s capsule1
The proportion of water in the glomerular filtrate thus increase1
(c)The person cannot produce sufficient insulin1
to stimulate liver cells to convert glucose into glycogen1
The level of glucose in the blood may become so high/exceed the threshold value 1
that glucose cannot be completely reabsorbed in the kidney
Thus it appears in the urine1
Effective...
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