Biology Cells Organelles

Topics: Cell, Endoplasmic reticulum, Organelle Pages: 7 (2043 words) Published: October 17, 2011
Biology- cell organelles assignment
Animal cells:
An animal cell is called a eukaryotic cell; it has a cell membrane, cytoplasm and a nucleus. The cell surface is covered by a membrane only. The cell membrane is strong and keeps the cell together even though it is thin and flexible. The cell membrane also controls what goes in and out of the cell e.g. nutrients go in and waste comes out. The cytoplasm is inside the nucleus and it controls the cells activities. An animal is made up of thousands of cells with different cells to do different things i.e. tissue cells and blood cells. Tissue cells form the brain, these are specialized cells called neurone or nerve cells. The brain is an organ made up of different tissues. Blood is made up of cells, red blood cells mainly their job is to carry oxygen around the body to the organs.

The following is a glossary of animal cell terms From cross-section of an animal cell diagram

Cell membrane - the thin layer of protein and fat that surrounds the cell. The cell membrane is semi permeable, allowing some substances to pass into the cell and blocking others. Centrosome - (also called the "microtubule organizing centre") a small body located near the nucleus - it has a dense centre and radiating tubules. The centrosome is where microtubules are made. During cell division (mitosis), the centrosome divides and the two parts move to opposite sides of the dividing cell. The centriole is the dense centre of the centrosome. Cytoplasm - the jellylike material outside the cell nucleus in which the organelles are located. Golgi body - (also called the Golgi apparatus or Golgi complex) a flattened, layered, sac-like organelle that looks like a stack of pancakes and is located near the nucleus. It produces the membranes that surround the lysosomes. The Golgi body packages proteins and carbohydrates into membrane-bound vesicles for "export" from the cell. Lysosome - (also called cell vesicles) round organelles surrounded by a membrane and containing digestive enzymes. This is where the digestion of cell nutrients takes place. Mitochondrion - spherical to rod-shaped organelles with a double membrane. The inner membrane is infolded many times, forming a series of projections (called cristae). The mitochondrion converts the energy stored in glucose into ATP (adenosine triphosphate) for the cell. Nuclear membrane - the membrane that surrounds the nucleus.

Nucleolus - an organelle within the nucleus - it is where ribosomal RNA is produced. Some cells have more than one nucleolus. Nucleus - spherical body containing many organelles, including the nucleolus. The nucleus controls many of the functions of the cell (by controlling protein synthesis) and contains DNA (in chromosomes). The nucleus is surrounded by the nuclear membrane. Ribosome - small organelles composed of RNA-rich cytoplasmic granules that are sites of protein synthesis.

Biology- cell organelles assignment

Animal cells:
Rough endoplasmic reticulum - (rough ER) a vast system of interconnected, membranous, infolded and convoluted sacks that are located in the cell's cytoplasm (the ER is continuous with the outer nuclear membrane). Rough ER is covered with ribosomes that give it a rough appearance. Rough ER transports materials through the cell and produces proteins in sacks called cisternae (which are sent to the Golgi body, or inserted into the cell membrane). Smooth endoplasmic reticulum - (smooth ER) a vast system of interconnected, membranous, infolded and convoluted tubes that are located in the cell's cytoplasm (the ER is continuous with the outer nuclear membrane). The space within the ER is called the ER lumen. Smooth ER transports materials through the cell. It contains enzymes and produces and digests lipids (fats) and membrane proteins; smooth ER buds off from rough ER, moving the newly-made proteins and lipids to the Golgi body, lysosomes, and membranes. Vacuole - fluid-filled,...
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