“Bicentennial Park is a diverse natural property”(1) which studies the ecosystem of mangroves, saltmarsh and other biotic and abiotic factors. Bicentennial Park is located in Sydney Olympic park, NSW Australia. “The state and federal government created the Park during 1980s, to celebrate Australia's Bicentenary in 1988”(2). “On 1 January the Park was officially opened”(3). “This large up-to-date park consists of 100 hectors of inheritance land”. Mangroves are among the endangered habitats in the world, there are 64 types of mangroves in the world, and Bicentennial Park has 2 types. Like the mangroves salt marsh is also an endangered species, it is a filtering system for nearby rivers and streams and supplies nutrients to fish and other aquatic species. “The Badu mangrove board walk allows people to walk through one of the largest remaining mangrove ecosystem beside the Parramatta River”(4).
Aim: To study the mangrove ecosystem by:
* Measuring the abiotic factors at different locations.
* Estimating the abundance of a plant and animal species. * Describing the distribution of a plant and animal species. * Identify the relationships between the abundance and distribution of a plant and animal species. * Describing how abiotic factors affect the distribution of organism. Method:
Different test where executed:
Measuring the abiotic factors at different location:
We measured different types of abiotic factors in the saltmarsh community and in the mangroves ecosystem. Here are the types: Soil temp, soil moisture, light intensity, wind velocity, air temp and humidity. * Soil temp: equipment (Soil thermometer probe).
Take the reading of the probe which was in the ground.
* Soil moisture: equipment (Soil moisture meter).
Take the reading of the meter which is in the ground.
* Light intensity: equipment (Light meter).
I. You get the light meter open to see the white disk than point it upwards and press the button and wait for the reading. II. Take the reading of the meter.
III. Close the light meter and put it back.
* Wind velocity: equipment (Anemometer).
I. Open the anemometer.
II. Take the anemometer point it slightly upwards.
III. Take the reading of the anemometer.
* Air temp: equipment (thermometer)
Take the reading of the thermometer.
* Humidity: equipment (Hygrometer)
Take the reading of the Hygrometer.
Estimating the abundance of plant and animal species:
In order to estimate the prosperity of the plant and animal species (seedlings and crab holes), the quadrant technique was applied. 10 one meter quadrants where placed along the mangrove creek beside the wooden pathway. By counting the amount of the seedlings and crab holes in each of the 10 quadrants, the results were listed on a piece of paper. For the seedlings you take the average amount in all the quadrants and multiply it by the total area that the mangrove seedling creek covered to obtain the overall abundance of the seedlings. For each one crab hole lives one crab in it, the average amount of crab holes in the 10 quadrants where multiplied by the area of mangrove seedling creek covered to obtain the abundance of the crabs in each crab hole.
Describing the distribution of a plant and animal species:
The first location was the mangrove trees; at the first location you’ll find a long transect. Along the transect where 10 meter posts that ended at 100 meters, mangrove trees where surrounding each one of the meters. The height of these mangrove trees were listed according to the estimation of the meter posts in every metre from 10100. The results were recorded on a vegetation graph, where the y axis is the height of the mangroves in meters and the x axis is the distance distant from the creek in meters. The crabs liver near rivers because the...