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FOLIO BIOLOGY
POLLUTION
NIK ‘AINAA SYAKIRAH BT NIK GHAZALI
5 IBNU SINA

INTRODUCTION

Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into a natural environment that causes instability, disorder, harm or discomfort to theecosystem i.e. physical systems or living organisms. It can also be define as any undesirable changes in physical, chemical or biological characteristics of the natural environment, brought about when harmful substances or energy released by human activities. Pollution can take the form of chemical substances or energy, such as noise, heat, or light. Pollutants, the elements of pollution, can be foreign substances or energies, or naturally occurring; when naturally occurring, they are considered contaminants when they exceed natural levels. Pollution is often classed as point source or nonpoint source pollution. Pollution became a popular issue after World War II, due to radioactive fallout from atomic warfare and testing. Then a non-nuclear event, The Great Smog of 1952 in London, killed at least 4000 people.This prompted some of the first major modern environmental legislation, The Clean Air Act of 1956. Pollution began to draw major public attention in the United States between the mid-1950s and early 1970s, when Congress passed the Noise Control Act, the Clean Air Act, the Clean Water Act and the National Environmental Policy Act. Growing evidence of local and global pollution and an increasingly informed public over time have given rise to environmentalism and the environmental movement,which generally seek to limit human impact on the environment. There are four major types of pollution happening in Malaysia ; air, water , thermal and noise pollution.

CONTENTS

No.| Contents| Page|
1| Introductions| |
2| Contents| |
3| Air Pollution| |
4| Water Pollution| |
5| Thermal Pollution| |
6| Noise Pollution| |
7| Stragies to solve problems related to pollution| |

Air Pollution
Air pollution is the introduction into the atmosphere of chemicals, particulates, or biological materials that cause discomfort, disease, or death to humans, damage other living organisms such as food crops, or damage the natural environment or built environment. The atmosphere is a complex dynamic natural gaseous system that is essential to support life on planet Earth. Stratospheric ozone depletion due to air pollution has long been recognized as a threat to human health as well as to the Earth's ecosystems.

Air pollution from World War II production

POLLUTANTS
An air pollutant is known as a substance in the air that can cause harm to humans and the environment. Pollutants can be in the form of solid particles, liquid droplets, or gases. In addition,they may be natural or man-made. Pollutants can be classified as either primary or secondary. Usually, primary pollutants are substances directly emitted from a process, such as ash from a volcanic eruption, the carbon monoxide gas from a motor vehicle exhaust or sulfur dioxide released from factories. Secondary pollutants are not emitted directly. Rather, they form in the air when primary pollutants react or interact. An important example of a secondary pollutant is ground level ozone one of the many secondary pollutants that make up photochemical smog. Note that some pollutants may be both primary and secondary: that is, they are both emitted directly and formed from other primary pollutants. About 4 percent of deaths can be attributed to air pollution, according to the EnvironmentalScience Engineering Program at the Harvard School of Public Health.

causes and effects of air pollution: (1) greenhouse effect, (2) particulate contamination, (3) increased UV radiation, (4) acid rain, (5) increased ground level ozone concentration, (6) increased levels of nitrogen oxides.

Major primary pollutants produced by human activity include: * Sulfur oxides (SOx) - especially sulphur...
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