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Introduction to Zoology
College of Arts & Sciences University of Negros Occidental - Recoletos

Importance of Zoology?

Branches of Zoology
1. Structural Zoology
a) b) c) d) Morphology Anatomy Histology Cytology Embryology Ontogeny Genetics Physiology Protozoology Entomology Malacology Ichthyology e) f) g) h) i) j) Herpetology Ornithology Helminthology Mammalogy Conchology Anthropology

2.

Developmental Zoology
a) b) c)

5.

Distributional Zoology
a) b) Zoogeography Ecology
Paleontology Phylogeny Evolution Parasitology Pathology

3. 4.

Functional Zoology
a) a) b) c) d)

6.

Historical Zoology
a) b) c)

Systematic Zoology 7.

Medical Zoology
a) b)

Vitalism vs. Mechanistic Philosophy of Science

Limitations of Science
• Severely limits the parameters that can be studied • Science is mechanistic • Parameters MUST be “measurable” • Observations can be statistically tested • Experiments must be repeatable

• Examples of the Limitations of Science

Scientific Method
1. 2. 3. 4. Initial OBSERVATIONS Formulation of QUESTIONS Generation of a testable HYPOTHESIS (= a tentative explanation) and an alternative hypothesis Making of PREDICTIONS using deductive reasoning  States what results are expected if the hypothesis is correct. An “If ______, then _____” process

5.

TESTING through controlled experiments and unbiased observations  Experiments and results must be repeatable and can be validated by other studies  Use of statistical tests  “Falsify or support hypothesis” REMEMBER THAT SCIENCE CANNOT PROVE HYPOTHESIS WITH ABSOLUTE CERTAINTY

General Properties of Life
1. ORDER
• Arrangement of parts • Chronology of Events (E.g. Stages of Embryonic Development) • Levels of Biological Organization  Subatomic particles → Atom → Organelle → Cell → Tissues → Organs → Organ System → Multicellular Organism → Population → Community → Ecosystem → Biosphere

2. GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT
• Growth – increase in size...
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