Since chemical reactions that occur within a cell occur at too slow of a rate to support life, there needs to be an enzyme present to help this reaction occur quicker. Any factors that affect the enzyme activity increase the reaction to its optimal level then begin to decrease due to denaturation. In this experiment, the factor that affected the enzyme activity was pH. Since the cause of denaturation is either the removal or addition of hydrogen ions, (Freeman, et al., 2011), extremely high and low pH figures would result in no activity for most enzymes. Changes in pH change the shape of the substrate so that it cannot bind with the active site or be catalyzed, thus a product is produced more quickly due to higher substrate concentration until the point of the enzyme saturation is reached (Freeman, et al., 2011). These concepts related to this experiment because as higher concentrations of pH were added to solution, the rate of hydrolysis of PNPP increased as well. The hypothesis stated that if the concentration of pH was increased, the rate of hydrolysis would increase as well, but if the concentration of pH was decreased, the rate of hydrolysis should decrease. When performing this lab, the concentration of Citrate buffer was increased from a pH of 4.8 M to 6.0 M. By doing this, the rate of hydrolysis increased, therefore the data did support the hypothesis. The hypothesis also stated that once the reaction has reached its optimum pH, the reaction rate should slowly start decreasing. This was proved by the data because in the first experiment, the pH of the Citrate buffer was 4.8 M and the rate of hydrolysis continuously increased, reaching 5.6x10ˉ7 M/minute. In experiment two, the pH of the buffer was increased to 6.0 M and the data fluctuated in rate. Thus, the hypothesis does not need to be revised because it was correct and it was supported by the data. Moreover, the experiment does not need to be revised either, because it was...
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