iThis is a guide. You will find it very helpful, but it does not contain everything that has been covered and could be asked on the exam. I can and will pull questions out of the textbook, so make sure you’ve been reading. Go back through the homework assignments and feel free to use the practice tests on Mastering Biology as well. Chapter 14 – Evolution of Evolutionary Thought
uniformitarianism: Earth's present landscape was produced by past action of the same geological processes. Questions:
Be able to explain how the theory of evolution developed from the early 1700s. What key discoveries were made and who made them? -Buffon:species created then evolve --> Lamarck: mechanism of species change -->Darwin/Wallace: evolution and natural selection.
What did Jean Baptiste Lamarck do? How did he contribute to the concept of evolution? What was he wrong about? -Lamarck hypothesized that organisms evolved through inheritance of acquired characteristics, where the body is modified due to use or disuse or parts & that all organisms have innate drive for perfection. He was incorrect in that acquired characteristics are not inherited as Mendel and genetics had not been discovered yet.
What was so important about Charles Lyell’s discoveries? -Lyell concluded that there was no need to invoke catastrophes to explain the findings of geology. Layers of rock are evidence of ordinary natural processes, and the idea of uniformitarianism. He concluded earth was extremely old and eternal showing there was enough time for evolution to occur.
What was Wallace/Darwin’s major contribution?
-Proposed that life's variety arose by descent with modification in which individuals in each generation differ slightly from the preceding generation. Based on their four postulates including variation, inheritance, differing reproductive success and natural selection.
What was a major problem with Darwin’s idea initially (hint: inheritance)? How and when was this problem resolved? -Principles of genetics had not yet been discovered, so there was no scientific evidence to prove postulate 2, that traits are passed from parent to offspring. This was resolved with Mendel's later for which demonstrated conclusive evidence.
Do species look more or less like modern species as you move deeper into the earth? How does this pattern provide evidence for evolution? Why is this pattern important? -They look less like modern species, as older fossils are found farther down in the earth. Fossils demonstrate how species have evolved over time and younger fossils are more closely related to each other, occurring as you go farther back as well.
Understand the scales of evolution – does an individual or a population evolve? Over what time scale does evolution occur – seconds, minutes, hours, generations, years, millennia? -Populations evolve, not individuals and evolution occurs over generations. Chapter 14 - Evidence for Evolution
evolution: change over time in the characteristics of populations comparative anatomy: gives evidence to descent with modification thylacinus: carnivorous marsupial
embryology:science of the development of the embryo
homologous vs analogous structures: homologous structures have same evolutionary origin but different function now while analogous structures are outwardly similar but different in evolutionary origin. vestigial structures: remnants of structures inherited from ancestors convergent evolution:natural selection causes non homologous structures that serve similar functions to resemble one another. Questions:
Know the four postulates on which the Theory of Evolution rests. Variation, Inheritance, Differential Reproductive Success, Nonrandom( natural selection)
What are the four main lines of evidence for evolution as described by your book and the notes? -Fossils provide evidence of change over time, comparative anatomy, embryological similarity...
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