Biological Citizens

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* Biological Citizens: All those citizenship projects that have linked their conception of citizens to beliefs about the biological existence of human beings, as individuals, men and women, families, lineages, communities, populations, races and species.

* We live in a society surrounded by Multiculturalism, where nations can no longer be seen as a cultural or religious unity, nor is citizenship based on trying to create a single national identity.

* Biological beliefs, implicitly or explicitly form the foundation of many citizenship projects and shaped ideas of what it means to be a citizen by outlining the differences between actual, potential, troublesome and impossible citizens.

* Many citizenship projects were framed in biological terms – race, blood lines, stock, intelligence etc.

* Analyzing the biological citizenship is not only the only focus for “making up citizens”, the languages have shaped the ways in which individuals understand themselves and relate to themselves and others. By understanding ones nationality, you were able to show allegiance to your country and distinguish yourself from non-citizens. * Ex, those citizens who claimed to have been exposed to the nuclear explosion at the Chernobyl reactor, believed they had medical and healthy services rights and social support from the government

* Becoming a ‘citizen’ also comes with the added burden of survival – a large part of the population is now negotiating the terms of its economic and social inclusion into a society using the matter of life.

* Biological citizenship now includes the demand for particular protections, or access to specific resources

* Gene-oriented constructions of race are different than the older versions of race-thinking which were seen in the 18th and 19th centuries. The meaning of racial difference has changed.

* Citizenship was based on what from the early 19th century to present day, is seen as “biology”.

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