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Bioinformatics is the application of computer science and information technology to the field of biology and medicine. Bioinformatics deals with algorithms, databases and information systems, web technologies, artificial intelligence and soft computing, information and computation theory, software engineering, data mining, image processing, modeling and simulation, signal processing, discrete mathematics, control and system theory, circuit theory, and statistics. Bioinformatics generates new knowledge of biology and medicine, and improving & discovering new models of computation (e.g., DNA computing, neural computing, evolutionary computing, immuno-computing, swarm-computing, cellular-computing). Commonly used software tools and technologies in this field include Java, XML, Perl, C, C++, Python, R, MySQL, SQL, CUDA, MATLAB, and Microsoft Excel. Bioinformatics was applied in the creation and maintenance of a database to store biological information at the beginning of the "genomic revolution", such as nucleotide sequences and amino acid sequences. Development of this type of database involved not only design issues but the development of complex interfaces whereby researchers could access existing data as well as submit new or revised data. In order to study how normal cellular activities are altered in different disease states, the biological data must be combined to form a comprehensive picture of these activities. Therefore, the field of bioinformatics has evolved such that the most pressing task now involves the analysis and interpretation of various types of data. This includes nucleotide and amino acid sequences, protein domains, and protein structures[1]. The actual process of analyzing and interpreting data is referred to as computational biology. Important sub-disciplines within bioinformatics and computational biology include: * the development and implementation of tools that enable efficient access to, and use and management of, various types of...

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