Biography of Rizal

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* Jose Rizal
Jose Rizal (1861 - 1896), a proponent of Filipino nationalism wrote several works with highly nationalistic and revolutionary ideas.At Knowledgerush read Lineage, Life and Labors of Jose Rizal, Philippine Patriot.You'll find extensive biographical information at the Jose Rizal Web Site page Jose Rizal: A Biographical SketchStudy GuidesFor chapter summaries see Get Higher Grades In Noli Me Tangere and Understanding El Filibusterismo| This article was written by Knowledgerush staff or contributed by users. All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License.|

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José Protacio Rizal Mercado y Alonzo Realonda (June 19, 1861 – December 30, 1896), the "Pride of the Malay Race" and "The Great Malayan," is the national hero of the Philippines.As a polyglot, he mastered 22 languages including Catalan, Chinese, English, French, German, Greek, Hebrew, Japanese, Latin, Malay,Sanskrit, Spanish, Tagalog, and other Philippine languages.As a polymath, he was also an architect, artist, educator, economist, ethnologist, scientific farmer, historian, inventor, journalist, linguist,musician, mythologist, nationalist, naturalist, novelist, ophthalmologist, physician, poet, propagandist, sculptor, and sociologist.A famous patriot, the anniversary of Rizal's death, December 30, is now celebrated as a holiday in the Philippines, called Rizal Day.FamilyThe seventh of the eleven children of Francisco Mercado and Teodora Alonzo. José Rizal was born into a prosperous middle class Filipino family in the town of Calamba in the Province of Laguna. Dominican friars granted the family the privilege of the lease of a hacienda and an accompanying rice farm, but contentious litigation followed; later, Valeriano Weyler y Nicolau had the buildings destroyed.Rizal is the descendant of Domingo Lam-co, a Chinese immigrant who sailed to the Philippines from Amoy, China in the mid 17th century (see Chinese Filipino). Lam-co married Inez de la Rosa, a Sangley native of Luzon. To free his descendants from the racist anti-Chinese policies of the Spanish authorities, Lam-co changed the family surname to the Spanish surname "Mercado" (market) so that they would not forget their Chinese merchant roots.As José became more embroiled in controversy, his elder brother and mentor Paciano advised him to change his name to protect the Mercados from Spanish authority. José changed his surname from Mercado to his middle name, "Rizal." The name is derived from Spanish "rizal" or "ricial," meaning "verdant" or "green" (as ricestalk), the main agricultural crop of their family industry.Aside from his indigenous Malay and Chinese ancestry, recent genealogical research has found that José had traces of Spanish, Japanese and Negritoancestry. His maternal great-great-grandfather (Teodora's great-grandfather) is Eugenio Ursua, a descendant of Japanese settlers, who married a Filipina named Benigna (surname unknown). These two gave birth to Regina Ursua who married a Sangley mestizo from Pangasinán named Atty. Manuel de Quintos, Teodora's grandfather. Their daughter Brígida de Quintos married a mestizo (half-caste Spaniard) named Lorenzo Alberto Alonzo, the father of Teodora.EducationHe first studied under Justiniano Cruz in Biñan, Laguna. He went to Manila to study at the Ateneo Municipal de Manila (now Ateneo de Manila University) where he received his Bachelor of Arts in 1877. He continued his education in the Ateneo Municipal to obtain a degree in land surveying and assessor, and at the same time in the University of Santo Tomas where he studied Philosophy and Letters. Upon learning that his mother was going blind, he then decided to study medicine (ophthalmology) in the University of Santo Tomas, but did not complete it because he felt that Filipinos were being discriminated by the Dominicans who operated the University.Against his father's wishes, he traveled to Madrid and studied medicine at the Universidad Central de Madrid where he...
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