Bioethics: Ethics and Health Care

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H EALTH C ARE E THICS

H EALTH C ARE E THICS
A C ATHOLIC T HEOLOGICAL A NALYSIS
F IFTH E DITION

Benedict M. Ashley, O.P. Jean K. deBlois, C.S.J. Kevin D. O’Rourke, O.P.

Georgetown University Press
Washington, D.C.

As of January 1, 2007, 13-digit ISBN numbers will replace the current 10-digit system. Paperback: 978-1-58901-116-8 Georgetown University Press, Washington, D.C. © 2006 by Georgetown University Press. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Nihil Obstat Reverend Patrick J. Boyle, S.J., Ph.D. Censor Deputatus November 16, 2005 Imprimatur Reverend George J. Rassas Vicar General Archdiocese of Chicago November 23, 2005 The Nihil Obstat and the Imprimatur are official declarations that a book is free of doctrinal and moral error. No implication is contained that those who have granted the Nihil Obstat and Imprimatur agree with the content, opinions, or statements expressed. Nor do they assume any legal responsibility associated with publication. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Ashley, Benedict M. Health care ethics : a Catholic theological analysis / Benedict M. Ashley, Jean K. deBlois, Kevin D. O’Rourke. — 5th ed. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN-13: 978-1-58901-116-8 (pbk. : alk. paper) ISBN-10: 1-58901-116-3 (pbk. : alk. paper) 1. Medical ethics—Religious aspects—Catholic Church. 2. Medicine—Religious aspects— Catholic Church. I. DeBlois, Jean. II. O’Rourke, Kevin D. III. Title. [DNLM: 1. Ethics, Medical. 2. Delivery of Health Care—ethics. 3. Catholicism. 4. Bioethical Issues. 5. Religion and Medicine. W 50 A817h 2006] R724.A74 2006 174.2—dc22 2006003222 This book is printed on acid-free paper meeting the requirements of the American National Standard for Permanence in Paper for Printed Library Materials. 13 12 11 10 09 08 07 06 First printing 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2

Printed in the United States of America

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C ONTENTS

Introduction

ix xv

List of Abbreviations Used in the Text and in Citations

Part I: Health Care Ethics and Human Needs 1 Bioethics in a Multicultural Age 3 Overview 3 1.1 The Emergence of Secular Bioethics 3 1.2 The Foundations of the Ethics of Health Care 1.3 Current Methodologies in Bioethics 9 1.4 Faith and Reason in Health Care Ethics 19 1.5 Conclusion 30 Ethics and Needs of the Common Person 31 Overview 31 2.1 An Ethics Based on Innate Human Needs 31 2.2 Jesus Christ, Healer, as Ethical Model 40 2.3 Character and the Major Moral Virtues 42 2.4 Prudent Decision Making 50 2.5 Moral Norms Especially Relevant to Health Care 2.6 Conclusion 60

5

2

53

v

vi

Contents

Part II: Clinical Issues 3 Sexuality and Reproduction 63 Overview 63 3.1 The Meaning of Human Sexuality 63 3.2 When Does Human Life Begin? 69 3.3 Ethical Issues in Reproduction 73 3.4 Pastoral Approach to Ethical Problems Arising from Sexuality 3.5 Conclusion 89 Reconstructing and Modifying the Human Body: Ethical Perspectives Overview 91 4.1 Modifying the Human Body 91 4.2 Genetic Intervention 94 4.3 Genetic Screening and Counseling 98 4.4 Organ Transplantation 103 4.5 Reconstructive and Cosmetic Surgery 108 4.6 Experimentation and Research on Human Subjects 113 4.7 Conclusion 122 Mental Health: Ethical Perspectives 125 Overview 125 5.1 What Is Mental Health? 126 5.2 Medical/Surgical Therapies 130 5.3 Psychotherapies 136 5.4 The Christian Model of Mental Health 145 5.5 Ethical Problems in Mental Therapy 148 5.6 Conclusion 160 Suffering and Death: A Theological Perspective 163 Overview 163 6.1 Mystery of Death 163 6.2 Fear of Death 166 6.3 Defining Death 169 6.4 Truth Telling to the Dying 173 6.5 Care for the Corpse or Cadaver 175 6.6 Suicide, Assisted Suicide, and Euthanasia 178 6.7...
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