Bioenergetics Photosynthesis & Respiration

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Bioenergetics Photosynthesis & Respiration
Laboratory Report
Exercise 6
PBIO101

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Gina Dedeles
Minda Dimaano-Kho

Group 5
Felicita, Haniel
Paulo, Gisselle Mildred V.

Aniseta, Carmelus*Absent but present in the first day of activity Corpus, Kristine *Absent at the 2nd day of activity
Shinotsuka, Hideki *Absent

Introduction
Energy is the capacity to do work. According to the first law of Thermodynamics, energy can never be created nor destroyed, but can only be transformed. Thus, the sun burns up its mass to release light and mass to release light and heat energy that reach the earth. It is this light energy that Chlorophyll plants, protists (algae) and monerans (bacteria and cyanobacteria) capture and convert to chemical energy through photosynthesis (photo-light; synthesis-building up) , the key process by which energy that ultimately comes from sunlight is supplied to nearly all living systems. Such photosynthetic organisms,themselves, use part of this chemical energy to grow and reproduce, but they are also eaten by animals and decomposed by fungi and the dominant achlorophyllous bacteria, thus supplying these organisms’ energy needs. Not all organisms on earth depend on sunlight as source of energy; small ecosystems have been recently discovered in dark ocean depths which rely on the energy provided by chemical substances spewed out by small volcanic vents. This is an example of a unique biological process of unusual energy conversion called chemosynthesis. But unlike carbon dioxide, oxygen, or water, energy does not cycle in biological systems. It is gradually lost as heat as the chemical bonds of the plant biomass are broken and reformed in animal biomass. Only about 10% of the energy available in ingested food during respiration is used to make new biomass; the remaining 90% dissipates as low-grade heat entropy. Thus, photosynthesis and respiration are opposed but interlinked energetic processes necessary for the maintenance of life. The overall equation of photosynthesis (left to right) Photosynthesis CO2 + 12H2O respiration C6H12O6 + 6H12O + 6O2 Carbon dioxide water glucose water oxygen

Respiration not only makes energy in chemical bonds of biomass that are convertible into the various forms of energy in chemical bonds of biomass that are convertible into the various forms of energy needed in metabolism. It also recycles carbon dioxide to fuel which furnaces photosynthesis

Objectives:
1. To study the role of light, chloroplast pigments, and carbon dioxide in photosynthesis 2. To demonstrate the process of aerobic respiration in germinating mongo seeds based on intake of oxygen and evolution of carbon dioxide. 3. To demonstrate abaerobic respiration (fermentation) in the yeast Saccharomyces cereviseae Materials:

1. Live Specimens
a. fresh or frozen leaves of any plant – spinach, petchay, etc. b. 2 potted mayana variegated plants (1 kept in the dark for 48 hours and the other as long as in the light) c. germinated mongo seeds

d. Hydrilla sprigs
e. pure culture of Saccharomyces cereviseae

2. Chemicals/Solutions
* acetone
* petroleum ether
* I2KI (potassium iodide)in 70% alcohol
* KOH (potassium hydroxide) pellets
* NaOH (sodium hydroxide) pellets
* Ba(OH)2 (barium hydroxide)
* Methylene blue dye (0.15g in 100ml distilled water)
* C6H12O6 (glucose)

3. Laboratory...
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