Biodiversity and Species

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INTRODUCTION:

Bangladesh is a gift of nature. It is gifted with much biodiversity of lives and an advanced ecosystem. Biodiversity was very rich in every sphere in our environment and ecosystem which was remained untouched and unharmed for centuries. But through- out years, population of Bangladesh has been growing in an unprecedented rate. With the growth of civilization, urbanization and industrialization had to take effect. As a result, from the 90’s decade Bangladesh had to walk in a path of rapid industrialization. The 90’s decade was remarkable especially for the increasing growth of economy in Bangladesh. Industrialization and urbanization took effect in concurrent with this growth of economy which also resulted in increasing pollution affecting the environment, proning people towards city from village, reduction of agriculture as the main livelihood to the growth of industry, filling of open space and which is the most alarming for both our environment and us, is the cutting of reserved forests for sake of establishing industry. It is true that industrialization and urbanization has brought comfort and prosperity in life of people. But which we don’t care is that for industrialization, we are loosing our age old, traditional biodiversity, ecosystem and forestry which were created not by human being but by nature. As a result of industrialization, our more than thousands years old nature, ecology, biodiversity and ecosystem are at stake. Many species both in botany and zoology are at the face of extinction today. But more dangerous than this pollution is that though our country is growing down in a vulnerable position day by day, still we all are not only ignorant but also indifferent to the events what are going around us. As result, we are gradually pushing ourselves towards an uncertain future. Therefore, it is high time we know about our nature, biodiversity, ecology, ecosystem and the way to preserve and conserve it by reducing pollution.

Bio-Diversity and related issues:

Biodiversity is the variation of life forms within a given ecosystem, biome, or on the entire Earth. Biodiversity is often used as a measure of the health of biological systems. The biodiversity found on Earth today consists of many millions of distinct biological species. The year 2010 has been declared as the International Year of Biodiversity.

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Biodiversity is not distributed evenly on Earth, but is consistently richer in the tropics and in specific localized regions such as the Cape Floristic Province; it is less rich in polar-regions where fewer species are found.

Rapid environmental changes typically cause extinctions. Of all species that have existed on Earth, 99.9 percent are now extinct. Since life began on Earth, five major mass extinctions have led to large and sudden drops in the biodiversity of species. Today there is concern that the period since the emergence of humans is part of a mass reduction in biodiversity, the Holocene extinction, caused primarily by the impact humans are having on the environment, particularly the destruction of plant and animal habitats. In addition, human practices have caused a loss of genetic biodiversity. The relevance of biodiversity to human health is becoming a major international issue, as scientific evidence is gathered on the global health implications of biodiversity loss.

What is Biodiversity?

Definition:

The most widely accepted definition for biodiversity is contained within the Convention on Biological Diversity.

‘Biological diversity’ means the variability among living organisms from all sources including, among other things, terrestrial, marine and other aquatic ecosystems and the ecological complexes of which they are part; this includes diversity within species, between species and of ecosystems. Biologists most often define biodiversity as the "totality of genes, species, and ecosystems of a region". An advantage of...
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