Biochemical Action of Bacteria

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OBJECTIVE:
1. To distinguish the bacteria abilities to metabolize various substrates and end products formed. 2. To observe the growth of different bacteria species in term of structures and its morphology based on different chemical substance applied. 3. To observe physiological and immunological properties utilized by different species of bacteria.

INTRODUCTION:
Bacteria biochemical testing can determine the types and numbers in terms of colony forming units of bacteria present in a sample of different chemical. The testing could be focused on a specific type of bacteria, medical bacteria or a broad range of environmental bacteria. Since bacteria are present in virtually any environment, it’s important to be clear why the testing is being performed. The more specific the testing is the better and the easier it is to interpret the results. Numbers and types of bacteria that should be a cause for concern depends upon several factors, including the type of bacteria present and the type of samples. Escherichia coli are one of the main species of bacteria living in the lower intestines of mammals. E.coli can be found in the intestinal tract of warm-blooded animals. The presence of E.coli in foods is considered to be an indication of fecal contamination. Staphylococcus organisms are commonly found in the environment. Several species of Staphylococcus are found on the skin, intestines, nasal passages, etc. of warm-blooded animals. Some species of Staphylococcus, particularly Staphylococcus aureus can be pathogenic are capable of causing illness. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is widely distributed in soil, water and plants. It survives in hot tubs, whirlpools, contact lens solution, sinks and showers. It can cause a number of opportunistic infections including infections of the skin, external ear canal and of the eye. Nitrifying bacteria recycle organic nitrogenous materials from ammonium (the endpoint for the decomposition of proteins) to nitrates. Their presence can indicate that the water may have been polluted by nitrogen-rich organics from sources such as compromised septic tanks, sewage systems, industrial and hazardous waste sites and is undergoing an aerobic form of degradation. The presence of denitrifying bacteria can indicate that the water has been polluted by nitrogen-rich organics from sources such as compromised septic tanks, sewage systems, industrial and hazardous waste sites.

MATERIALS:
1. Nutrient broth cultures of Escherichia coli
2. Nutrient broth cultures of Serratia marcescens
3. Nutrient broth cultures of Salmonella typhimurium
4. Nutrient broth cultures of Bacillus subtilis
5. Nutrient broth cultures of Klebsiella spp.
6. Nutrient broth cultures of Streptococcus spp.
7. Nutrient broth cultures of Staphylococcus aurieus
8. Nutrient broth cultures of Proteus vulgaris
9. Nutrient broth cultures of Pseudomonas fluorescens
10. Parafilm tape
11. Inoculating loops
12. Gloves
13. Incubator
14. Nutrient agar plate
15. Nutrient agar slants
16. Starch agar plates
17. Gelatine agar plates
18. 2 tubes Clark’s-Lub medium (MR-VP medium)
19. 2 Tryptone broth
20. 3 Kigler’ slant
21. 5 tubes nitrate broth ( 0.1% KNO3)
22. 5 urea broth
23. Tube containing 10ml of sterile saline
24. Glucose broths with Durham tubes and phenol red indicator 25. Lactose broths with Durham tubes and phenol red indicator 26. Sucrose broths with Durham tubes and phenol red indicator 27. Gram’s iodine

28. Kovac’s indol reagent
29. Mercuric chloride solution
30. KOH-creatine solution or 40% KOH
31. F&R reagent
32. Nessler’s reagent

PROCEDURE:

A. CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM

1. Fermentation of sugars

Materials:
1. Glucose broths with Durham tubes and phenol red indicator 2. Lactose broths with Durham tubes and phenol red indicator 3. Sucrose broths with Durham tubes and phenol red...
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