Bio Notes

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Bio notes 2/4/13

Sunlight + 2H (little 2) O + 2O (little 2) - 2O (little 2) + C (little6) H (little 12) O (little6)

Sunlight+ water+ carbon dioxide oxygen + glucose

Supports all life on Earth
Changing sunlight (solar energy) to glucose (chemical energy) Where? Leaves

Leaf structures

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epidermis
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palisade mesophyll- top 1-2 layers under epidermis—very regular, column like, tightly packed,, lots of chloroplasts (capture sunlight)

spongy mesophyll-irregular shape
lots of spaces between cells
important for gas exchange
stomata- pore,, cells on the side are guard cells
regulate moisture
movement in and out of cell

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Epidermis

Chloroplasts

Double membrane around the outside

3rd membrane makes flattened sacs called thyla koids
grana- stacks of thyla koids
thyla koid space is the space in the spring like structures
space—chlorophyll
chlorophyll and other pigments- capture H. energy, reflect green light, best at using violet, blue and red light

sunlight- various wavelengths of energy, different energy content down wavelength= up energy
gamma rays- x rays- UV rays- visible light (most that reach Earth’s surface)- IR (infrared)- micro –radio highest energy to lowest energy

photosynthesis
2 sets of reactions
photo- light (refers to 1st set of reactions)
captures light energy
solar energy is transformed into chemical energy (ATP)
synthesis-making something new
dark reactions
light independent
chemical energy (ATP) transform to another form chemical energy (C(6)H(12)O(6)) glucose

Photosynthesis
Equation reminder
FAD and NAD

Light Reactions
1st set of reactions
light dependent
ATP is produced from solar energy

Let’s get started
Chlorophyll within chloroplasts capture light energy
Electrons become excited
Move to nearby electron acceptor

Hydrolysis
Water is split
H (2) o 2e + 2H+ + ½ O (2)
Electrons + hydrogen ions + oxygen
So in the 1st set of reactions solar energy and water are used and oxygen is produced

Electron transport chain
Chain of electron acceptors
Electrons move from one carrier to the next to the next

Hydrogen
Temporarily stays in thylakoid space
Build up of hydrogen within space creates hydrogen ion gradient Hydrogen flowing out of the thylakoid space is tied to the production of ATP

Calvin Cycle
2nd set of reactions
dark reactions
light independent
big picture for Calvin Cycle
uses carbon dioxide and produces glucose
cyclic pathway with many intermediates
ATP changed to glucose (1 form chemical energy changed to another form chemical energy)

What happens?
CO(2) + RuBP 6 Carbon molecule
This is a rate limiting step
6 carbon molecule then goes through series of steps to eventually make glucose glucose is what plants and animals metabolize to produce ATP for all energy needs

Why all the trouble
End of 1st reactions ATP
2nd reactions take ATP and make glucose
why do plants perform the 2nd set of reactions when the first produces ATP and ATP is what is needed to fuel the body Nitroglycerine vs. Dynamite
Same as ATP vs glucose

Cellular Respiration

Glucose + oxygen 6CO(2) + 6H(2)O + energy (ATP)

Where
Glycolysis- in cytoplasm
Remaining steps in mitochondria
Mitochondria+ “power house” of the cell

What is cellular respiration?
Step- wise release of energy from carbohydrates and other molecules Aerobic- process- requires oxygen

Efficiency
About 40% efficient
Means about 40% of food used to make ATP rest lost as heat
Perspective car about 25% efficient

Enzymes
2 needed for cellular respiration are NAD+ and FAD
both are electron carriers
both present in cell

glycolysis
takes place in cytoplasm
used by nearly all organisms
anaerobic- does not require oxygen
overall- breakdown of glucose into...
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