There are two general categories of cells: eukaryotic cells and prokaryotic cells. Eukaryotic cells have a true nucleus which is separated from the rest of the cell by a membrane. The nucleus contains chromosomes, which are the carrier of the genetic materials in eukaryotes. It also contains membrane-bound compartments called organelles such as centrioles, lysosomes, golgi apparatus and mitochondria which are specialized for particular biological processes. Eukaryotic organisms may be multicellular or unicellular organisms. All animals are eukaryotes. Other eukaryotes include plants, fungi, and protists. Prokaryotic cells are the simplest of cells, and the first types of cells to evolve. Prokaryotic cells are organisms that lack a nuclear membrane, the membrane that surrounds the nucleus of a cell. Thus, the genetic materials in prokaryotic cell is not separated from the rest of the cell but coiled up in a region called the nucleoid. It does not contain intracellular organelles and structures such as eukaryotic cell. Most of the functions of organelles, such as mitochondria, chloroplasts, and the golgi apparatus, are taken over by the prokaryotic plasma membrane. Most prokaryotes are made up of unicellular but there are a few that are made of multicellular. Prokaryotes are categories into two groups: the bacteria and the archaea.
Part A: Observation of starch grains.
A small piece of potato was placed in the center of the slide and enough pressure was applied with fingers until a small amount of juice was forced out. The piece of potato was discarded.
A drop of water and a clean cover slip was added to the slide.
The slide was examined under low power (10x), then high power (40x). A drawing of 4-6 starch grains was made to illustrate their shape and other observable details.
The grains were stained by irrigation technique.
(A drop... [continues]
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