1. Friedrich (Fritz) Miescher http://www.dnai.org/timeline/index.html Find Miescher on the timeline and click on the bucket with the Red Cross to watch the animation. In 1869, he extracted a substance from white blood cells that he called nuclein. What do you think he was actually extracting?
2. Frederick Griffith http://biology.clc.uc.edu/courses/Bio104/dna.htm Frederick Griffith’s famous experiment was conducted in 1928. In his experiment, ______________ smooth virulent bacteria plus live rough _____________________ bacteria killed mice. His experiment demonstrated that DNA was the ____________ material.
Griffith’s Famous Experiment: Transformation
3. Oswald Avery: http://library.thinkquest.org/20830/Textbook/HistoryofDNAResearch.htm In 1944, what did he discover that DNA is responsible for?
4. Alfred Hershey and Martha Chase:
a. In 1952, their experiments showed that ______ is the genetic material instead of ____________.
5. Erwin Chargaff: http://www.dnai.org/timeline/index.html
Watch “Chargaff’s Ratios.” Chargaff used relative proportions of bases in DNA to come up with his rules for base pairing. What are four sources of DNA that he used?
http://fig.cox.miami.edu/~cmallery/150/gene/chargaff.htm Adenine (A) pairs with _____________
Guanine (G) pairs with _____________
The bases that are purines include ___________ & ____________. The bases that are pyrimidines include __________ & ____________.
6. Rosalind Franklin:
http://www.dnai.org/timeline/index.html Watch Franklin’s X-ray diffraction pattern. What is X-ray crystallography (a.k.a. X-ray diffraction)?
What did she discover about the shape of DNA?
7. Linus Pauling:...