Bio Cell Study Guide 9th Grade

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Biology Cell Study Guide

Cell Theory
1.All living things are made of cells

2.Cells are made form other cells

3. Cells are the basic STRUCTURAL and FUNCTIONAL units of life

Robert Hooke: discovered cells while looking at cork using a microscope

Schleiden: all plants are made of cells

Virchow: Cells come from other Cells

Organelle- structure in a cell that performs a specific function

Nucleolus- dark spot in the nucleus where ribosomes are made

Lysosome- sac of digestive enzymes

Rough ER- covered by ribosomes and sends modified proteins to the Golgi Apparatus

Cell Wall- found outside cell membrane in plant cells and bacteria, provides support and protection

Mitochondria- store energy as ATP

DNA- molecule used to store genetic information

Eukaryote- an organism with nuclear membrane and organelles surrounded by membranes

Nucleus- surrounded by double membrane, contains the cells DNA, acts a control center

Flagella- One or two long, hair like structures, help the cell move

Cytoplasm- holds cells organelles

Smooth ER: Several Functions
1. Calcium levels in muscle cells
2. Toxins in liver cells
3. Cholesterol- make
4. Hormone- in ovaries and testes

Cristae- folded layers in mitochondria
* Cell membrane is a lipid bilayer

Plasma Membrane- surrounds all cells and is selectively permeable

Ribosomes- makes proteins

* Smooth ER does not have ribosomes attached; Rough ER does * Phospholipids combine with proteins to make cell membranes

Golgi Body- packages molecules for transport out of the cell

Vacuole- space for storing food, water, enzymes, or waste

Prokaryote- organism like bacteria with NO NUCLEUR MEMBRANE AND NO MEMBRANE BOUND ORGANELLES

Cilia- many hair like structures on the surface of a cell that help it move

Centrioles- pull cells apart in cell division

Cytolysis- process by which a cell destroys itself for the good the organism

* If there are a...
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