Bio 136 - Human Disease Final Study Guide

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Biology 136

Final Exam

13-7 1) Which of the following is NOT TRUE for the normal cerebrospinal fluid b) no blood but nutrients for brain tissue
c) blood does not normally cross the blood brain barrier (BBB) 13-74_2) A cerebral vascular accident is also referred to as a (CVA) = Stroke ← Most commonly caused by hypertension and long standing ateriosclerosis ← Aneurysms; weakened blood vessels

← Hemorrhage into the brain tissue damages the neurons, causing a sudden loss of consciousness. ← Death can follow, or, if the bleeding stops, varying degrees of brain damage can result. ← When detected, swift surgical repairs of aneurysms save lives.

_____3)(T/F) “Rest and digest” is a description of the Parasympathetic Nervous System

_____4) (T/F) The basal ganglia is involved in subconscious actions of voluntary movements
such as inhibiting tremors – controls position

13-26_5) A) shingles (Herpes Zoster)
1) acute inflammation/infection of the peripheral nervous system due to the chicken pox virus a) variciella virus 2) characterized by pain and a rash with watery blisters and a red area that itches a) can result from trauma or reaction to certain drug injections b) Cab accompany other diseases such as TB and pneumonia

c) Follows a nerve root or can effect the eye

13-28_6) B) tetanus = lock jaw
1) from animal bite or deep puncture wound
3) has powerful toxin that stimulates motor neuron which in turn stimulates muscle spasm

13-27_7) C) Reye’s syndrome
1) develops in young children with viral infections and the use of aspirin

13-26 D) Herpes Zoster = Chicken Pox / Shingles

13-17,18,20_____8) E) Meningitis
A) Meningitis = acute inflammation of first 2 meninges that cover the brain 1)

13-23_____9) AB) poliomyelitis
Polio
3) primarily affects motor neurons of the medulla oblongata, and spinal cord a) muscles die without motor nerve stimulation

13-22_____10) AC) encephalitis = inflammation of the brain and meninges

13-29_____11) AD) brain abscesses
1) caused by pyogenic (pus producing) bacteria

13-24_____12) AE) rabies
a) cats, dogs, raccoons, skunks, wolves, foxes, bats
b) transmitted to humans through bites, or scratches from a rabid animals c) caused by a virus, transmitted through saliva

13-62_____13) A) Alzheimer’s disease
3) Manifests as elderly condition, may start as early as 40-50

13-54_____14) B) Parkinson’s disease = shaky palsy

13-50F_____15) C) nystagmus = involuntary rapid eye movement

13-61_____16) D) Huntington’s disease (Huntington’s chorea) 1) dominant genetic disorder that doesn’t appear till 50’s a) progressive loss of muscle control
2) chorea = ceaseless rapid jerky movements
a) affects mind and body
3) S+S= carelessness, poor judgment, impaired memory a) deteriorates to total dementia

13-50,51_____17) E) Multiple sclerosis (MS)
4) Due to degeneration of nerve tissue
a. Breaking of myelin sheath

13-51 Tay Sach’s Disease
1) Also a myelin disorder
2) Too much build up to promote conduction

13-53_____18) AB) Wernick Hoffman’s disease= Type 1 Spinal Muscular Atrophy a) onset before age 2
b) 1 in 8000 nabies have this
b) most severe usually dead by age 1
c) death from respiratory failure – paralysis of diaphragm d) essentially a quadraplegic very quickly

13-52_____19) AC) Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis = ALS – Lou Gehrig’s Disease 1) chronic terminal disorder in which there is a progressive loss of motor neurons 2)

13-79_____20) Brief but critical periods of reduced blood flow in the cerebral artery Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA) ministroke

13-65,66_____21) A) epilepsy
1) Groups of uncontrolled cerebral discharges that recur ay random intervals...
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