Binary Information

Topics: Internet, Computer, World Wide Web Pages: 9 (2445 words) Published: February 19, 2013
What is the difference between data and information:

-Data is the lowest level of knowledge and information is the second level -Data by itself alone is not significant. Information is significant by itself. -Observations and recordings are done to obtain data while analysis is done to obtain information. 2. Discuss how computer represents data and basic units of measuring information (up to GB): Computer represents data using binary numeral system:

- bit= binary unit (to 256)
- bute- 8 bits
- kb= 1024 byrtes
- mb= 1024 Kb
- gb= 1024 mb
3. Compare ASCII, EBCDIC and Unicode:
ASCII- American Standard Code for Information Interchange
ASCII is a 7 digit (7- bit) code
EBCDIC-Extended Binary- Coded Decimal Interchange Code (INM mainframes)
EBCDIC- represents each character as a unique combination of 8 bits
8 bites=256 unique combinations
Unicode- Universal International coding standard design to represent text based data.
Unicode identifies each character using, 0s and 1s. It’s a larger code, consisting of 1 to 4 bytes 4. Discuss the difference between computers:
Mainframe-used by large organizations (hospital, university, bank, government offices)
-manages a large amount of fertilized data.
- located in climate-controlled data centers and connect to the rest of the company computers .via computer network Supercomputer:
-$2 mil -\220 million
- 50 – 50000 times faster than PC.
- A large number of processors interconnected by a network.
Small (microcomputers or pc)
-$500- $7000
- Desktop computers and work stations
- Laptop Computers
- Notebook Computers
- Palmtop Computers
Server is a computer program running to serve the request of other programs •Workstation
-high-end desktop or deskside microcomputer designed for technical applications. -intended to be used by one person at time.
-popular for engineering, science and graphics

7. Briefly describe major hardware components:
{Major} Central Processing Unit
-the chip located in the motherboard of a computer that performs the processing for a computer. •Input devices: keyboard, mouse, scanner, microphone, webcam, touchscreen. •Output devices: printer, monitor, projector, speakers, headphones 8. Give examples of volatile and non-volatile memory and discuss the differences. Volatile: RAM

When your electricity go out you will lost all of your data. When you shut down the computer info that haven’t saved destroys.
Non-volatile: ROM
-The data is saved to a hard drive or flash drive
-All data that stored in this type of memory will retain when you shut down your computer. 9. Differences between RAM and ROM.
RAM (Random Access Memory)
Temporary storage for a data, programs and the operating system while you are using PC •It is volatile, meaning that the contents of memory are lost forever when computer is shut off ROM (Read Only Memory)

Consists of non-erasable hardware modules that store program instructions •It is non-volatile (that is “only read”)

10) Cache Memory
Extremely fast memory that is built into CPU.
-In a typical processor it is volatile
-On hard drives it is nonvolatile
_Built into CPU high-speed memory
-Store data and intermediary results, temporally during processing 11) Advantages of using multi-core CPUs
-Contains the processing components all cores of multiple independent processors on a single CPU (Allows computers to work simultaneously or more that one task at a time) 12) Briefly describe how CPU works?

-CPU sits in the motherboard as the central unit. When a function program or peace of data is called, the CPU pulls the date from random access memory and any other hardware in order to process it. -The CPU reads the instructions associated to the task before sending it back to RAM 13.Approaches for making faster and better computer: Improved architecture, Improved materials, Pipelining Improved Multiprocessing and parallel processing...
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