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Automation in Construction
j o u r n a l h o m e p a g e : w w w. e l s ev i e r. c o m / l o c a t e / a u t c o n
Building information modeling for sustainable design and LEED® rating analysis Salman Azhar a,⁎, Wade A. Carlton a, Darren Olsen a, Irtishad Ahmad b a b
McWhorter School of Building Science, Auburn University, Auburn, AL, USA Department of Construction Management, Florida International University, Miami, FL, USA
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Today, there is a high level of demand for sustainable buildings. The most important decisions regarding a building's sustainable features are made during the design and preconstruction stages. Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED®) is the most widely adopted sustainable building rating system in the United States. For projects pursuing LEED® certiﬁcation, designers have to conduct in-depth sustainability analyses based on a building's form, materials, context, and mechanical–electrical–plumbing (MEP) systems. Since Building Information Modeling (BIM) allows for multi-disciplinary information to be superimposed within one model, it creates an opportunity to conduct these analyses accurately and efﬁciently as compared to the traditional methods. In this exploratory research, a case study was conducted on Salisbury University's Perdue School of Business building to demonstrate the use of BIM for sustainable design and the LEED® certiﬁcation process. First, a conceptual framework was developed to establish the relationship between BIMbased sustainability analyses and the LEED® certiﬁcation process. Next, the framework was validated via this case study. The results of this study indicate that documentation supporting LEED® credits may be directly or indirectly prepared using the results of BIM-based sustainability analyses software. This process could streamline the LEED® certiﬁcation process and save substantial time and resources which would otherwise be required using traditional methods. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Article history: Accepted 16 July 2010 Available online 16 November 2010 Keywords: BIM Sustainable design LEED® rating Green building rating systems Building performance analyses
1. Introduction Recent studies indicate that the demand for sustainable building facilities with minimal environmental impact is increasing [1,4,7]. Rising energy costs and growing environmental concerns are the catalysts for such high demand. The environmental and human health beneﬁts of sustainable (also called green) buildings have been widely recognized. A slight increase in upfront costs of about 2% to support sustainable design, on average, results in life cycle savings of approximately 20% of total construction costs; which is more than ten times the initial investment . Hence sustainable buildings are economically viable too. Worldwide, individuals and organizations have responded to the increased demand for green buildings. Many countries and international organizations have initiated rating systems for sustainable construction. Currently, a number of different rating systems are used to rate the environmental performance of buildings. These include but are not limited to: Australia's Green Star; Canada's LEED Canada; Germany's DGNB Certiﬁcation System; India's IGBC Rating System and LEED India; Japan's Comprehensive Assessment System for Building Environmental Efﬁciency; New Zealand's Green Star NZ; South ⁎ Corresponding author. E-mail address: email@example.com (S. Azhar). 0926-5805/$ – see front matter © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.autcon.2010.09.019
Africa's Green Star SA, United Kingdom's BREEAM, and the United State's LEED. Most of these rating systems' primary criteria are similar in that they evaluate a building's energy consumption, water efﬁciency, material use and indoor environmental...