• Lewis goldberg proposed a five dimension
personality model , nicknamed the big five
/five factor theory.
• The Big Five model is a comprehensive,
empirical, data-driven research finding.
• In psychology, the "Big Five" factors (Five
Factor Model) of personality are five broad
domains or dimensions of personality which
are used to describe human personality.
Big five factors are
• Factor I: Extraversion.
• Factor II: Agreeableness.
• Factor III: Conscientiousness.
• Factor IV: Neuroticism.
• Factor V: Openness to Experience.
Factor I: Extraversion
• Extraversion is characterized by positive emotions
and the tendency to seek out stimulation and the
company of others.
• Extraverts enjoy being with people, and are often
perceived as full of energy.
• They tend to be enthusiastic, action-oriented
individuals who are likely to say "Yes!" or "Let's go!"
to opportunities for excitement.
• In groups they like to talk, assert themselves,
and draw attention to themselves.
• Introverts lack the social exuberance and
activity levels of extraverts.
• They tend to seem quiet, low-key, deliberate,
and less involved in the social world.
Extraversion : the tendency to be
• Talkative versus Quiet.
• Assertive versus Reserved.
• Active versus Shy.
• Energetic versus Silent.
• Outgoing versus Withdrawnness..
Sample extraversion items
• I don't mind being the center of attention.
• I feel comfortable around people.
• I start conversations.
• I talk to a lot of different people at parties.
• I don't talk a lot. (reversed)
• I have little to say. (reversed)
• I don't like to draw attention to myself. (reversed)
• I am quiet around strangers. (reversed)
Factor II: Agreeableness
• Agreeableness is a tendency to be compassionate
and cooperative rather than suspicious and
antagonistic towards others.
• They are generally considerate, friendly, generous,
helpful, and willing to compromise their interests
• Agreeable people also have an optimistic view of
human nature. They believe people are basically
honest, decent, and trustworthy.
• Disagreeable individuals place self-interest above
getting along with others.
• They are generally unconcerned with others’ well-being.
• Sometimes their skepticism about others’ motives
causes them to be suspicious, unfriendly, and
• Kind versus unkind.
• Appreciative versus Fault-finding.
• Soft-hearted versus Hard-hearted.
• Warm versus Cold.
• Generous versus Quarrelsome.
• Friendly versus Unfriendly.
Sample agreeableness items
• I am interested in people.
• I sympathize with others' feelings.
• I have a soft heart.
• I take time out for others.
• I feel others' emotions.
• I make people feel at ease.
Factor III: Conscientiousness
• Conscientiousness is a tendency to show self-discipline, act dutifully, and aim for achievement against measures or outside expectations.
• The trait shows a preference for planned rather
than spontaneous behavior.
• It influences the way in which we control, regulate,
and direct our impulses.
• Organized versus unorganized.
• Efficient versus inefficient.
• Responsible versus Irresponsible.
• Reliable versus unreliable.
• Dependable versus Undependable
• Practical versus imaginative.
Sample conscientiousness items
• I am always prepared.
• I pay attention to details.
• I get chores done right away.
• I like order.
• I follow a schedule.
• I am exacting in my work.
Factor IV: Neuroticism
• Neuroticism is the tendency to experience negative
emotions, such as anger, anxiety, or depression.
• It is sometimes called emotional instability.
• Those who score high in neuroticism...