1. Assess the democratic characteristics in the English Colonies in the context of Massachusetts and Virginia
Plymouth: Plymouth was a colony settled by Pilgrims who were religious separatists. They migrated to America to maintain their English identity. Since they didn't have a royal charter, they created the Mayflower Compact. It was essentially the first American constitution. The Puritans created a political structure that highlighted their self-governing and religious attitudes. They were religiously tolerant, and they became a vibrant and healthy community. Over time, their colony grew, so they created a legal code, which formed a representative self-government, political rights, and religious freedom. This created a stable democratic political foundation for the colony.
Massachusetts: The settlers of the Massachusetts Bay colony, led by John Winthrop, were Puritans seeking a religious haven for the prosecuted Puritans in England. They were originally a joint-stock company, but they created a representative political system that included a governor, council, and assembly. Although they were generally democratic, they did not tolerate other religions in their colony.
3. To what extent did mercantilism affect the political and economic development of England's 13 American colonies?
The British colonies had to put their own needs aside to focus on providing for their mother country, England. They were ordered only to trade goods with the mother country. Unfortunately, this didn't work out for the colonies because they gave lots, but received very little of what they needed to prosper from England. The limitations on trading only with England resulted in a limitation of supplies, which inhibited the colonies opportunity for economic development. The government of the mother country controlled the industry in the colonies and it made it difficult for the colonies to become self-sufficient and prosper economically and politically, since they really had no control of their future.
4. 1660 - Navigation Acts - These acts forced American colonists to trade goods solely with British ships through British ports, and it only allowed for the colonists to trade certain goods. Their purpose was for England to make more profit off of the colonists and maintain economic dominance over the colonists. Overall it was quite harmful to the colonies.
Dominion of New England (1686) - New England colonies of NY & NJ combine into the dominion as a result of revoked charters. This created unjust regulations of religion and commerce on the dominion.
Molasses Act (1733) - This was a large tariff that was set on French molasses with the intent on making it too expensive to buy and raising British sales.
Royal Proclamation (1763) - this prohibited colonists from migrating west of the Appalachian Mountains, which enraged the people since they longed for expansion.
Currency Act (1764) - this prohibited the colonists from creating new land banks, as well as the use of paper currency to settle debts. This was an issue with the colonists because it was affecting their trade abilities, and made settling debts all that more difficult.
Sugar Act (1764) - This was equivalent to the Molasses act (which was ineffective). It had negative impacts on the colonists economically since they had to buy sugar from the British.
Quartering Act (1765) - this forced the colonists to allow British troops into their homes and provide for them. This was an invasion of privacy and an invasion of their rights.
Tea Act (1773) - Encouraged colonists to buy British tea since it was cheaper with this new tax on other teas. Smuggling from the Dutch was no longer the better option, and this angered the colonists since they did not want to submit to the British
Intolerable Acts (1774) - A combination of the most oppressive acts that were put in place in response to rebellions such as the Boston Tea...